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Concept: Antiplatelet drug


The GLOBAL LEADERS trial is a superiority study in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, with a uniform use of Biolimus A9-eluting stents (BES) and bivalirudin. GLOBAL LEADERS was designed to assess whether a 24-month antithrombotic regimen with ticagrelor and one month of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), compared to conventional dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), improves outcomes.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Cardiology, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Clopidogrel, Antiplatelet drug, Stent, Aspirin


Antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel is recommended to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD); however, clopidogrel efficacy has not been adequately studied in this patient population. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of cilostazol therapy on platelet reactivity among PAD patients on clopidogrel.

Concepts: Blood, Coronary artery disease, Cardiovascular disease, Effectiveness, Peripheral vascular disease, Clopidogrel, Antiplatelet drug, Aspirin


BACKGROUND: If percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is required in patients taking oral anticoagulants, antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is indicated, but such triple therapy increases the risk of serious bleeding. We investigated the safety and efficacy of clopidogrel alone compared with clopidogrel plus aspirin. METHODS: We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial in 15 centres in Belgium and the Netherlands. From November, 2008, to November, 2011, adults receiving oral anticoagulants and undergoing PCI were assigned clopidogrel alone (double therapy) or clopidogrel plus aspirin (triple therapy). The primary outcome was any bleeding episode within 1 year of PCI, assessed by intention to treat. This study is registered with, number NCT00769938. FINDINGS: 573 patients were enrolled and 1-year data were available for 279 (98·2%) patients assigned double therapy and 284 (98·3%) assigned triple therapy. Mean ages were 70·3 (SD 7·0) years and 69·5 (8·0) years, respectively. Bleeding episodes were seen in 54 (19·4%) patients receiving double therapy and in 126 (44·4%) receiving triple therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0·36, 95% CI 0·26-0·50, p<0·0001). In the double-therapy group, six (2·2%) patients had multiple bleeding events, compared with 34 (12·0%) in the triple-therapy group. 11 (3·9%) patients receiving double therapy required at least one blood transfusion, compared with 27 (9·5%) patients in the triple-therapy group (odds ratio from Kaplan-Meier curve 0·39, 95% CI 0·17-0·84, p=0·011). INTERPRETATION: Use of clopiogrel without aspirin was associated with a significant reduction in bleeding complications and no increase in the rate of thrombotic events. FUNDING: Antonius Ziekenhuis Foundation, Strect Foundation.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Myocardial infarction, Randomized controlled trial, Stroke, Warfarin, Antiplatelet drug, Anticoagulant, Blood transfusion


Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor is the treatment of choice for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and for those undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. The availability of different oral P2Y12 inhibitors (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) has enabled physicians to contemplate switching among therapies because of specific clinical scenarios. The recent introduction of an intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor (cangrelor) further adds to the multitude of modalities and settings in which switching therapies may occur. In clinical practice, it is not uncommon to switch P2Y12 inhibitor, and switching may be attributed to a variety of factors. However, concerns about the safety of switching between these agents have emerged. Practice guidelines have not fully elaborated on how to switch therapies, leaving clinicians with limited guidance on when and how to switch therapies when needed. This prompted the development of this expert consensus document by key leaders from North America and Europe with expertise in basic, translational, and clinical sciences in the field of antiplatelet therapy. This expert consensus provides an overview of the pharmacology of P2Y12 inhibitors, different modalities and definitions of switching, and available literature and recommendations for switching between P2Y12 inhibitors.

Concepts: Medicine, Myocardial infarction, Percutaneous coronary intervention, The Canon of Medicine, Clopidogrel, Antiplatelet drug, Enzyme inhibitor, Aspirin


Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonist reduces thrombotic and ischemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention and acute coronary syndrome. The platelet inhibitory effect of the thienopyridine clopidogrel varies widely among individuals, and high on-treatment platelet reactivity has been associated with a substantial hazard for post-PCI cardiovascular events, including stent thrombosis. The clinical availability of ex vivo methods to measure the antiplatelet effect of P2Y12 antagonists raises the possibility that incorporating platelet function testing into clinical practice could facilitate a stratified and efficient approach to antiplatelet therapy following PCI, although data from definitive randomized trials supporting a routine approach are currently lacking.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Receptor, Platelet, Clopidogrel, Antiplatelet drug, Receptor antagonist, Aspirin


There are no reliable data from randomised trials to decide whether anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents are better to prevent further thromboembolic events after cervical arterial dissection. Most neurologists favour anticoagulants based on the underlying pathology and the likely course of acute post-dissection thromboembolism.

Concepts: Thrombosis, Antiplatelet drug, Vertebral artery dissection, Coronary artery dissection, Carotid artery dissection


We previously reported the noninferiority of paravertebral block (PVB) to epidural block. In this study, we assessed whether PVB via an intrathoracic approach was also safe for the patients ineligible for epidural block because of, for example, anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy.

Concepts: Antiplatelet drug, Epidural


Antiplatelet drugs are recommended for patients with acute noncardioembolic stroke. However, few randomized clinical trials have investigated the safety and efficacy of dual antiplatelet therapy for these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin (combination therapy) and aspirin alone (monotherapy) on neurologic deterioration, platelet activation, and other short-term outcomes in patients with acute large-artery atherosclerosis stroke.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Myocardial infarction, Effectiveness, Platelet, Clopidogrel, Antiplatelet drug, Aspirin, Ticlopidine


Cerebrovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death and disability in developed countries. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel are the most widely-used antiplatelet drugs for secondary prevention of recurrent thromboembolic events. However, there have been cases in which antiplatelet drugs did not inhibit platelet activity; this phenomenon is called resistance, and it may be modulated at the genetic level.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Stroke, Platelet, Clopidogrel, Antiplatelet drug, Aspirin, Antiplatelet drugs, Ticlopidine


There remains concern that the antiplatelet effects of aspirin and clopidogrel vary between patients and poor responders may be at increased risk of adverse events. However, the optimal method of measuring aspirin and/or clopidogrel response remains unresolved. We compared three methods of measuring clopidogrel response recommended by a recent consensus statement for the European Society of Cardiology, and investigated a novel approach to measuring aspirin response in patients established on both aspirin and clopidogrel. In addition, we investigated whether any of these assays predict peri-procedural myocardial necrosis following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Cardiology, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Platelet, Clopidogrel, Antiplatelet drug, Aspirin, Thromboxane A2