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Concept: Antimetabolite


Pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PAs) have very poor prognoses even when surgery is possible. Currently, there are no tissular biomarkers to predict long-term survival in patients with PA. The aims of this study were to (1) describe the metabolome of pancreatic parenchyma (PP) and PA, (2) determine the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on PP and PA, and (3) find tissue metabolic biomarkers associated with long-term survivors, using metabolomics analysis.

Concepts: Metabolism, Enzyme, Adenocarcinoma, Pancreatic cancer, Digestion, Metabolomics, Metabolome, Antimetabolite


To block the metabolically labile sites of novel tubulin inhibitors targeting the colchicine binding site based on SMART, ABI, and PAT templates, we have designed, synthesized, and biologically tested three focused sets of new derivatives with modifications at the carbonyl linker, the para-position in the C ring of SMART template, and modification of A ring of the PAT template. Structure-activity relationships of these compounds led to the identification of new benzimidazole and imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine -fused ring templates, represented by compounds 4 and 7, respectively, which showed enhanced antitumor activity and substantially improved the metabolic stability in liver microsomes compared to SMART. MOM group replaced TMP C ring generated a potent analogue 15, which showed comparable potency to the parent SMART compound. Further modification of PAT template yielded another potent analogue 33 with 5-indolyl substituent at A ring.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Cell cycle, Vincristine, Antimetabolite


Fluoropyrimidines are frequently prescribed anticancer drugs. A polymorphism in the fluoropyrimidine metabolizing enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; ie, DPYD*2A) is strongly associated with fluoropyrimidine-induced severe and life-threatening toxicity. This study determined the feasibility, safety, and cost of DPYD*2A genotype-guided dosing.

Concepts: Oncology, Cure, Chemotherapy, Cost-benefit analysis, Antimetabolite


A complex interplay of environmental factors impacts the metabolism of human cells, but neither traditional culture media nor mouse plasma mimic the metabolite composition of human plasma. Here, we developed a culture medium with polar metabolite concentrations comparable to those of human plasma (human plasma-like medium [HPLM]). Culture in HPLM, relative to that in traditional media, had widespread effects on cellular metabolism, including on the metabolome, redox state, and glucose utilization. Among the most prominent was an inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis-an effect traced to uric acid, which is 10-fold higher in the blood of humans than of mice and other non-primates. We find that uric acid directly inhibits uridine monophosphate synthase (UMPS) and consequently reduces the sensitivity of cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil. Thus, media that better recapitulates the composition of human plasma reveals unforeseen metabolic wiring and regulation, suggesting that HPLM should be of broad utility.

Concepts: Protein, Bacteria, Ammonia, Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Nitrogen, Enzyme inhibitor, Antimetabolite


In order to characterize the metabolic transformation of thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO) in Helicoverpa armigera larvae and clarify its relationship with the insecticidal toxicity of TMX, method for determination of TMX and its metabolite clothianidin (CLO) residues in H. armigera larvae by solid phase extraction (SPE) combined UPLC-MS/MS was established. Following acetonitrile extraction and purification by SPE on florisil cartridge and C18 cartridge sequently, and cleanup by PSA adsorption, TMX and CLO residues in H. armigera larvae were successfully determined by UPLC-MS/MS. By using the established method, the concentration-time curves of TMX and its metabolite CLO in H. armigera larvae in vivo and metabolism of TMX by microsome of H. armigera larvae midguts in vitro were studied. TMX was quickly eliminated from H. armigera larvae with the elimination half-life as 4.2h. Meanwhile, only a small amount of CLO was formed from TMX metabolism, with the maximum CLO level in H. armigera larvae only accounts for the metabolic transformation of 7.99% of TMX, at 10h after intravenous TMX administration. Our results suggested that the low insecticidal efficacy of TMX against H. armigera larvae was related with the rapidly elimination of TMX from H. armigera larvae, meanwhile, CLO as TMX metabolite at a very low level in vivo didn’t contribute to TMX toxicity to H. armigera larvae. In H. armigera larvae, TMX didn’t act as proinsecticide for CLO in insecticidal efficacy of TMX.

Concepts: Metabolism, In vivo, In vitro, Metabolomics, Half-life, Metabolome, Helicoverpa armigera, Antimetabolite


Guided by antiproliferative activity in MIA PaCa-2 cells, we have performed preliminary structure-activity relationship studies on N-(1-benzyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)benzamides. Two selected compounds showed submicromolar antiproliferative activity and good metabolic stability. Both compounds reduced mTORC1 activity and increased autophagy at the basal level. In addition, they disrupted autophagic flux by interfering with mTORC1 reactivation and clearance of LC3-II under starvation/refeed conditions, as evidenced by accumulation of LC3-II and abnormal LC3 labeled punctae. Therefore, N-(1-benzyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)benzamides may represent a new class of autophagy modulators that possesses potent anticancer activity and potentially a novel mechanism of action.

Concepts: DNA, Oncology, Adenosine triphosphate, Enzyme, Chemotherapy, Antimetabolite


Puromycin is a peptidyl nucleoside endowed with significant antibiotic and anticancer properties, but also with an unfortunate nephrotoxic character that has hampered its use as a chemotherapeutic agent. Since hydrolysis of puromycin’s amide to puromycin aminonucleoside is the first metabolic step leading to nephrotoxicity, we designed a 3'-C-hydrazide analog where the nitrogen and carbon functionality around the amide carbonyl of puromycin are inverted. The title compound, synthesized in 11 steps from D-xylose, cannot be metabolized to the nephrotoxic aminonucleoside. Evaluation of the title compound on Staphylococcus epidermidis and multi-drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus did not show significant antimicrobial activity up to a 400 μM concentration.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Carbon dioxide, Bacteria, Nitrogen, Amide, Cisplatin, Antimetabolite


Thiopurine drugs are the most commonly used steroid-sparing therapies in moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Their complex metabolism and their narrow therapeutic windows means that optimal dosing is difficult. However, weight-based dosing is the norm. Similar antimetabolites are dosed by body composition parameters. In IBD, treatment response and toxicity has been shown to correlate with thiopurine metabolite levels. We sought to determine whether weight or body composition parameters predicted therapeutic 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6TGN) or toxic 6-methylmercaptopurine (6MMP) levels.

Concepts: Inflammation, Medicine, Metabolism, Cure, Ulcerative colitis, Gastroenterology, Inflammatory bowel disease, Antimetabolite


Antifolates are structural analogs of folates, which have been used as antitumor drugs for more than 60 years. The antifolate drug most commonly used for treating human tumors is methotrexate (MTX), which is utilized widely in first-line treatment protocols of high-grade osteosarcoma (HGOS). In addition to MTX, two other antifolates, trimetrexate and pemetrexed, have been tested in clinical settings for second-line treatment of recurrent HGOS with patients unfortunately showing modest activity. Areas covered: There is clinical evidence which suggsest that, like other chemotherapeutic agents, not all HGOS patients are equally responsive to antifolates and do not have the same susceptibility to experience adverse drug-related toxicities. Here, we summarize the pharmacogenomic information reported so far for genes involved in antifolate metabolism and transport and in MTX-related toxicity in HGOS patients. Expert opinion: Identification and validation of genetic biomarkers that significantly impact clinical antifolate treatment response and related toxicity may provide the basis for a future treatment modulation based on the pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic features of HGOS patients.

Concepts: DNA, Pharmacology, Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy regimens, Folic acid, Antimetabolite


Understanding the rerouting of metabolic reaction fluxes upon perturbations has the potential to link changes in molecular state of a cellular system to alteration of growth. Yet, differential flux profiling on a genome-scale level remains one of the biggest challenges in systems biology. This is particularly relevant in plants, for which fluxes in autotrophic growth necessitate time-consuming instationary labeling experiments and costly computations, feasible for small-scale networks.

Concepts: Metabolism, Energy, Organism, Integral, Metabolomics, Metabolome, Autotroph, Antimetabolite