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Concept: Anti-diabetic drug

225

 To assess the risks of amputation, blindness, severe kidney failure, hyperglycaemia, and hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes associated with prescribed diabetes drugs, particularly newer agents including gliptins or glitazones (thiazolidinediones).

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Insulin resistance, Anti-diabetic drug, Sulfonylurea, Pioglitazone, Thiazolidinedione, Rosiglitazone

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BACKGROUND: Although oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) are an essential element of therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes, OHA adherence is often suboptimal. Pharmacists are increasingly being integrated into primary care as part of the move towards a patient-centered medical home and may have a positive influence on medication use. We examined whether the presence of pharmacists in primary care clinics was associated with higher OHA adherence. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 280,603 diabetes patients in 196 primary care clinics within the Veterans Affairs healthcare system. Pharmacists presence, number of pharmacist full-time equivalents (FTEs), and the degree to which pharmacy services are perceived as a bottleneck in each clinic were obtained from the 2007 VA Clinical Practice Organizational Survey—Primary Care Director Module. Patient-level adherence to OHAs using medication possession ratios (MPRs) were constructed using refill data from administrative pharmacy databases after adjusting for patient characteristics. Clinic-level OHA adherence was measured as the proportion of patients with MPR >= 80%. We analyzed associations between pharmacy measures and clinic-level adherence using linear regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between pharmacist presence and clinic-level OHA adherence. However, adherence was lower in clinics where pharmacy services were perceived as a bottleneck. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist presence, regardless of the amount of FTE, was not associated with OHA medication adherence in primary care clinics. The exact role of pharmacists in clinics needs closer examination in order to determine how to most effectively use these resources to improve patient-centered outcomes including medication adherence.

Concepts: Cohort study, Diabetes mellitus, Anti-diabetic drug, Metformin

167

OBJECTIVES: Older patients are particularly vulnerable to hypoglycaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to initiation of once-daily insulin detemir in patients aged ≥75 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with one or more oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). METHODS: A sub-analysis was conducted using data from SOLVE (Study of Once daily LeVEmir), a 24-week observational study involving 3,219 investigators and 2,817 project sites from ten countries. Routine clinical practice was followed; there were no study-prescribed procedures. The total cohort comprised 17,374 participants, of whom 2,398 (14 %) were aged ≥75 years. The physicians collected information from patient recall, the patients' medical records and their self-monitored blood glucose diaries (if kept). RESULTS: Pre-insulin glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) was similar between participants aged ≥75 years and those aged <75 years (HbA(1c) 8.8 ± 1.5 % vs. 8.9 ± 1.6 % [mean ± SD], respectively). After 24 weeks of treatment, similar reductions in HbA(1c) were observed in the two subgroups: 7.6 ± 1.1 % and 7.5 ± 1.2 % in participants aged ≥75 years and those aged <75 years, respectively. The incidence of severe hypoglycaemia (episodes per patient-year) decreased during the study in both age groups (from 0.057 to 0.007 in patients aged ≥75 years; from 0.042 to 0.005 in patients aged <75 years), while minor hypoglycaemia increased from 1.1 to 2.0 and from 1.7 to 1.8 episodes per patient-year in the older and younger age groups, respectively. Average weight reduction was similar in both groups: -0.5 kg (≥75 years) and -0.6 kg (<75 years). CONCLUSION: In both the older and younger age groups, the addition of once-daily insulin detemir to existing OAD regimens was effective and safe. In older patients, an improvement in HbA(1c) of 1.2 % was not associated with an increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia or weight gain.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Diabetes, Hypoglycemia, Anti-diabetic drug, Sulfonylurea

113

 To determine whether pioglitazone compared with other antidiabetic drugs is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in people with type 2 diabetes.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Anti-diabetic drug, Sulfonylurea, Metformin, Pioglitazone, Thiazolidinedione

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Recent in vitro and animal experiments suggest that peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARɣ) agonist medications, such as antidiabetic glitazone (GTZ) drugs, are neuroprotective in models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). These findings have not been tested in humans. We hypothesized that individuals prescribed GTZ drugs would have a lower incidence of PD compared to individuals prescribed other treatments for diabetes.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Cohort study, Epidemiology, Diabetes mellitus, Neurology, Anti-diabetic drug, Thiazolidinedione

35

 To assess associations between risks of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and all cause mortality and different diabetes drugs in people with type 2 diabetes, particularly newer agents, including gliptins and thiazolidinediones (glitazones).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Actuarial science, Insulin resistance, Anti-diabetic drug, Pioglitazone, Thiazolidinedione

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The management of type 2 diabetes has been challenged by uncertainty about possible cardiovascular effects related to treatment intensity and choice of drug. Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers a decrease in glycated hemoglobin an approvable end point, very intensive glycemic control is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.(1) The safety of specific drugs for type 2 diabetes - particularly the thiazolidinediones - has also been questioned. After rosiglitazone had been approved in the United States in 1999 and in Europe in 2000, a highly publicized meta-analysis in 2007 reported a 43% increase in myocardial infarction (P=0.03) . . .

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Diabetes mellitus, United States, Diabetes, Insulin resistance, Anti-diabetic drug, Pioglitazone, Thiazolidinedione

30

Inflammation and oxidative stress are known risk factors for preterm birth (PTB); however, the mechanisms and pathways that influence this condition are not fully described. Previously, we showed that mTORC1 signaling is increased in mice harboring a uterine-specific deletion of transformation-related protein 53 (p53d/d mice), which exhibit premature decidual senescence that triggers spontaneous and inflammation-induced PTB. Treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin reduced the incidence of PTB in the p53d/d mice. Decidual senescence with heightened mTORC1 signaling is also a signature of human PTB. Here, we have identified an underlying mechanism for PTB and a potential therapeutic strategy for treating the condition. Treatment of pregnant p53d/d mice with either the antidiabetic drug metformin or the antioxidant resveratrol activated AMPK signaling and inhibited mTORC1 signaling in decidual cells. Both metformin and resveratrol protected against spontaneous and inflammation-induced PTB in p53d/d females. Using multiple approaches, we determined that p53 interacts with sestrins to coordinate an inverse relationship between AMPK and mTORC1 signaling that determines parturition timing. This signature was also observed in human decidual cells. Together, these results reveal that p53-dependent coordination of AMPK and mTORC1 signaling controls parturition timing and suggest that metformin and resveratrol have therapeutic potential to prevent PTB.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Antioxidant, Oxidative stress, Radical, Anti-diabetic drug, Metformin, Cervix

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The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of glimepiride plus extended release metformin (MET) on glycemic control in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus uncontrolled on monotherapy with sulfonylurea or MET. This was a prospective, open-labeled, multicentric study over 12 weeks. Patients who were diagnosed with type-2 diabetes and were uncontrolled on monotherapy with single oral hypoglycemic agents such as glimepiride or MET and characterized by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7% and ≤10% and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 140 mg/dL were enrolled in this study. Treatment regimen was started at 1 mg of glimepiride plus 500 mg of MET once a day and was titrated to next dose level depending on the clinician’s judgment, not exceeding a total daily dose of 8 mg of glimepiride and 2000 mg of MET. After 12-weektreatment, glimepiride plus MET combination showed improvement in metabolic control as assessed by changes in HbA1c, FPG, and post prandial glucose (PPG). Primary efficacy parameter, HbA1c, was significantly reduced to (7.65 ± 1.70) at the end of the treatment from the baseline value (8.35 ± 0.93) (P < 0.001). Of the patients, 65.79% showed ≥0.5% reduction in HbA1c and or HbA1c <7% at the end of the therapy. FPG and PPG were significantly reduced at the end of the therapy as compared with baseline values (P < 0.001). Moreover, the lipid profile was also improved during the treatment period. The addition of glimepiride to MET is an effective treatment for patients inadequately controlled on sulfonylurea or Met alone. A combination of glimepiride with MET achieves good glycemic control with better tolerability profile.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Diabetes, Anti-diabetic drug, Sulfonylurea, Metformin

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AIMS: Aside from lowering blood glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) attract much attention because of their cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to assess the blood pressure-lowering effects of the GLP-1 RAs exenatide and liraglutide compared with other common drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes based on randomised controlled trials including data describing complete blood pressure (BP) changes from baseline. METHODS: We searched the major databases for published or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that had been performed in patients with type 2 diabetes and compared the effects of exenatide and liraglutide to those of other common drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes. The RCTs that included data describing BP changes between the baseline and the end of the study were selected for further analysis. RESULTS: A total of 16 RCTs that enrolled 3443 patients in the GLP-1 RA treatment group and 2417 subjects in the control group were included in this meta-analysis. The GLP-1 RA exenatide reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) when compared with both placebo and insulin glargine, with mean differences of -5.24 mmHg and -3.46 mmHg, respectively, and with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of -6.88 to -3.59, P<0.00001, and -3.63 to -3.29, P<0.00001, respectively. Meanwhile, in the exenatide-treated group, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was reduced by -5.91 mmHg, with a 95% CI of -7.53 to -4.28, P<0.00001 compared with the placebo group, and -0.99 mmHg with a 95% CI of -1.12 to -0.87, P<0.00001 compared with the sitagliptin group. SBP changes in this meta-analysis were assessed in the groups treated with 1.2 mg or 1.8 mg liraglutide per day. In the 1.2 mg-treated group, liraglutide treatment reduced SBP compared with placebo and glimepiride treatment, with mean differences of -5.60 mmHg and -2.38 mmHg, and 95% CIs of -5.84 to -5.36, P<0.00001 and -4.75 to -0.01, P=0.05, respectively. In the 1.8 mg-treated group, liraglutide also reduced SBP compared with placebo and glimepiride treatment with mean differences of -4.49 mmHg and -2.62 mmHg, and a 95% CI of -4.73 to -4.26, P<0.00001, and -2.91 to -2.33, P<0.00001, respectively. CONCLUSION: Treatment with the GLP-1 RAs exenatide and liraglutide reduced SBP and DBP by 1 to 5 mmHg compared with some other anti-diabetic drugs including insulin, glimepiride and placebo for patients with type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 RAs may offer an alternative therapy for these patients and will help provide extra cardiovascular benefits.

Concepts: Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Blood pressure, Anti-diabetic drug, Anti-diabetic drugs, Glucagon-like peptide-1, Exenatide