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Concept: Ant colony optimization


Particle swarm optimization is a popular method for solving difficult optimization problems. There have been attempts to formulate the method in formal probabilistic or stochastic terms (e.g. bare bones particle swarm) with the aim to achieve more generality and explain the practical behavior of the method. Here we present a Bayesian interpretation of the particle swarm optimization. This interpretation provides a formal framework for incorporation of prior knowledge about the problem that is being solved. Furthermore, it also allows to extend the particle optimization method through the use of kernel functions that represent the intermediary transformation of the data into a different space where the optimization problem is expected to be easier to be resolved-such transformation can be seen as a form of prior knowledge about the nature of the optimization problem. We derive from the general Bayesian formulation the commonly used particle swarm methods as particular cases.

Concepts: Scientific method, Probability, Problem solving, Optimization, Bayesian probability, Particle swarm optimization, Optimization problem, Ant colony optimization


A two-dimensional lattice model based on Cellular Automata theory and swarm intelligence is used to study the spatial and population dynamics of a theoretical ecosystem. It is found that the social interactions among predators provokes the formation of clusters, and that by increasing the mobility of predators the model enters into an oscillatory behavior.

Concepts: Physics, Sociology, Lotka–Volterra equation, Optimization, Particle swarm optimization, Ant colony optimization, Swarm intelligence, Automata theory


Abstract Several stability analyses and stable regions of particle swarm optimization (PSO) have been proposed before. The assumption of stagnation and different definitions of stability are adopted in these analyses. In this paper, the order-2 stability of PSO are analyzed based on a weak stagnation assumption. A new definition of stability is proposed and an order-2 stable region is obtained. Several existing stable analyses for canonical PSO are compared, especially their definitions of stability and the corresponding stable regions. It is shown that, the classical stagnation assumption is too strict and not necessary. Moreover, among all these definitions of stability, it is shown that our definition requires the weakest conditions, and additional conditions bring no benefit. Finally, numerical experiments are reported to show that the obtained stable region is meaningful. A new parameter combination of PSO is also shown to be good, even better than some known best parameter combinations.

Concepts: Optimization, Particle swarm optimization, Ant colony optimization


This paper reviews recent studies on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The review has been focused on high impact recent articles that have analyzed and/or modified PSO algorithms. This paper also presents some potential areas for future study.

Concepts: Algorithm, Peer review, Optimization, Particle swarm optimization, Ant colony optimization, Swarm intelligence, Algorithmic efficiency, Articles with example pseudocode


In recent years, intelligent prosthetic knees have been developed that enable amputees to walk as normally as possible when compared to healthy subjects. Although semi-active prosthetic knees utilizing magnetorheological (MR) dampers offer several advantages, they lack the ability to generate active force that is required during some states of a normal gait cycle. This prevents semi-active knees from achieving the same level of performance as active devices. In this work, a new control algorithm for a semi-active prosthetic knee during the swing phase is proposed to reduce this gap. The controller uses neural network predictive control and particle swarm optimization to calculate suitable command signals. Simulation results using a double pendulum model show that the generated knee trajectory of the proposed controller is more similar to the normal gait than previous open-loop controllers at various ambulation speed. Moreover, the investigation shows that the algorithm can be calculated in real-time by an embedded system, allowing for easy implementation on real prosthetic knees.

Concepts: Algorithm, Force, Normal distribution, Optimization, Walking, Particle swarm optimization, Ant colony optimization, Swarm intelligence


Photonic crystals (PCs) are built to control the propagation of light within their structure. These can be used for an assortment of applications where custom designed devices are of interest. Among them, one-dimensional PCs can be produced to achieve the reflection of specific and broad wavelength ranges. However, their design and fabrication are challenging due to the diversity of periodic arrangement and layer configuration that each different PC needs. In this study, we present a framework to design high reflecting PCs for any desired wavelength range. Our method combines three stochastic optimization algorithms (Random Search, Particle Swarm Optimization and Simulated Annealing) along with a reduced space-search methodology to obtain a custom and optimized PC configuration. The optimization procedure is evaluated through theoretical reflectance spectra calculated by using the Equispaced Thickness Method, which improves the simulations due to the consideration of incoherent light transmission. We prove the viability of our procedure by fabricating different reflecting PCs made of porous silicon and obtain good agreement between experiment and theory using a merit function. With this methodology, diverse reflecting PCs can be designed for any applications and fabricated with different materials.

Concepts: Scientific method, Simulation, Monte Carlo method, Optimization, Global optimization, Particle swarm optimization, Ant colony optimization, Optimization algorithms


To deal with the large number of malicious mobile applications (e.g. mobile malware), a number of malware detection systems have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to find the optimum parameters that can be used to facilitate mobile malware identification. We also present a multi agent system architecture comprising three system agents (i.e. sniffer, extraction and selection agent) to capture and manage the pcap file for data preparation phase. In our hybrid approach, we combine an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Evaluations using data captured on a real-world Android device and the MalGenome dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in comparison to two hybrid optimization methods which are differential evolution (ANFIS-DE) and ant colony optimization (ANFIS-ACO).

Concepts: Artificial intelligence, Operations research, Optimization, Particle swarm optimization, Ant colony optimization, Optimization algorithms, Software architecture, Swarm intelligence


Molecular docking is a hard optimization problem that has been tackled in the past with metaheuristics, demonstrating new and challenging results when looking for one objective: the minimum binding energy. However, only a few papers can be found in the literature that deal with this problem by means of a multi-objective approach, and no experimental comparisons have been made in order to clarify which of them has the best overall performance. In this paper, we use and compare, for the first time, a set of representative multi-objective optimization algorithms applied to solve complex molecular docking problems. The approach followed is focused on optimizing the intermolecular and intramolecular energies as two main objectives to minimize. Specifically, these algorithms are: two variants of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), speed modulation multi-objective particle swarm optimization (SMPSO), third evolution step of generalized differential evolution (GDE3), multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) and S-metric evolutionary multi-objective optimization (SMS-EMOA). We assess the performance of the algorithms by applying quality indicators intended to measure convergence and the diversity of the generated Pareto front approximations. We carry out a comparison with another reference mono-objective algorithm in the problem domain (Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) provided by the AutoDock tool). Furthermore, the ligand binding site and molecular interactions of computed solutions are analyzed, showing promising results for the multi-objective approaches. In addition, a case study of application for aeroplysinin-1 is performed, showing the effectiveness of our multi-objective approach in drug discovery.

Concepts: Algorithm, Evolution, Problem solving, Genetic algorithm, Optimization, Mathematical optimization, Ant colony optimization, Optimization algorithms


In this paper, the suitability and performance of ANFIS (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system), ANFIS-PSO (particle swarm optimization), ANFIS-GA (genetic algorithm) and ANFIS-DE (differential evolution) has been investigated for the prediction of monthly and weekly wind power density (WPD) of four different locations named Mersing, Kuala Terengganu, Pulau Langkawi and Bayan Lepas all in Malaysia. For this aim, standalone ANFIS, ANFIS-PSO, ANFIS-GA and ANFIS-DE prediction algorithm are developed in MATLAB platform. The performance of the proposed hybrid ANFIS models is determined by computing different statistical parameters such as mean absolute bias error (MABE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The results obtained from ANFIS-PSO and ANFIS-GA enjoy higher performance and accuracy than other models, and they can be suggested for practical application to predict monthly and weekly mean wind power density. Besides, the capability of the proposed hybrid ANFIS models is examined to predict the wind data for the locations where measured wind data are not available, and the results are compared with the measured wind data from nearby stations.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Standard deviation, Root mean square, Mean squared error, Optimization, Mean absolute percentage error, Root mean square deviation, Ant colony optimization


The emergence of smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices has highly favored the realization of smart homes in a down-stream sector of a smart grid. The underlying objective of Demand Response (DR) schemes is to actively engage customers to modify their energy consumption on domestic appliances in response to pricing signals. Domestic appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption intelligently. Besides, to residential customers for DR implementation, maintaining a balance between energy consumption cost and users’ comfort satisfaction is a challenge. Hence, in this paper, a constrained Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method is proposed. The method can be further featured with edge computing. In contrast with cloud computing, edge computing—a method of optimizing cloud computing technologies by driving computing capabilities at the IoT edge of the Internet as one of the emerging trends in engineering technology—addresses bandwidth-intensive contents and latency-sensitive applications required among sensors and central data centers through data analytics at or near the source of data. A non-intrusive load-monitoring technique proposed previously is utilized to automatic determination of physical characteristics of power-intensive home appliances from users’ life patterns. The swarm intelligence, constrained PSO, is used to minimize the energy consumption cost while considering users’ comfort satisfaction for DR implementation. The residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method proposed in this paper is evaluated under real-time pricing with inclining block rates and is demonstrated in a case study. The experimentation reported in this paper shows the proposed residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method can re-shape loads by home appliances in response to DR signals. Moreover, a phenomenal reduction in peak power consumption is achieved by 13.97%.

Concepts: Emergence, Optimization, Cloud computing, Utility computing, Grid computing, Particle swarm optimization, Ant colony optimization, Swarm intelligence