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Concept: ANOVA Gauge R&R


A barrier to preventative treatments for psychosis is the absence of accurate identification of persons at highest risk. A blood test that could substantially increase diagnostic accuracy would enhance development of psychosis prevention interventions.

Concepts: Blood, Sample size, Measurement, Greek loanwords, Psychometrics, Reliability, Accuracy and precision, ANOVA Gauge R&R


Standard imaging modalities are inaccurate in staging malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Single-institution studies suggest that volumetric computed tomography (CT) is more accurate but labor intensive. We established a multicenter network to test interobserver variability, accuracy (relative to pathologic stage), and the prognostic significance of semiautomated volumetric CT.

Concepts: Cancer, Sample size, Cancer staging, Psychometrics, Reliability, Accuracy and precision, Mesothelioma, ANOVA Gauge R&R


We examined the influence of alcohol on remembering an interactive hypothetical sexual assault scenario in the laboratory using a balanced placebo design. Female participants completed a memory test 24 hours and 4 months later. Participants reported less information (i.e., responded “don’t know” more often to questions) if they were under the influence of alcohol during scenario encoding. The accuracy of the information intoxicated participants reported did not differ compared to sober participants, however, suggesting intoxicated participants were effectively monitoring the accuracy of their memory at test. Additionally, peripheral details were remembered less accurately than central details, regardless of the intoxication level; and memory accuracy for peripheral details decreased by a larger amount compared to central details across the retention interval. Finally, participants were more accurate if they were told they were drinking alcohol rather than a placebo. We discuss theoretical implications for alcohol myopia and memory regulation, together with applied implications for interviewing intoxicated witnesses.

Concepts: Scientific method, Sample size, Psychometrics, Reliability, Accuracy and precision, Intoxication, Alcohol intoxication, ANOVA Gauge R&R


The focus on prevention strategies aimed at curbing the HIV epidemic is growing, and therefore screening for HIV has again taken centre stage. Our aim was to establish whether a convenient, non-invasive, HIV test that uses oral fluid was accurate by comparison with the same test with blood-based specimens.

Concepts: Sample size, Psychometrics, Reliability, Accuracy and precision, Meta-analysis, ANOVA Gauge R&R


Assessment of ocular irritation potential is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. None in vitro ocular irritation assays are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as stand-alone. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI consortium assessed the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and computational models as well as established a tiered-testing strategy. One of the selected assays was Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP). In this project, the same corneas were used for measurement of opacity using the OP-KIT, the Laser Light-Based Opacitometer (LLBO) and for histopathological analysis. The results show that the accuracy of the BCOP OP-KIT in identifying Cat 1 chemicals was 73.8% while the accuracy was 86.3% for No Cat chemicals. BCOP OP-KIT false negative results were often related to an in vivo classification driven by conjunctival effects only. For the BCOP LLBO, the accuracy in identifying Cat 1 chemicals was 74.4% versus 88.8% for No Cat chemicals. The BCOP LLBO seems very promising for the identification of No Cat liquids but less so for the identification of solids. Histopathology as an additional endpoint to the BCOP test method does not reduce the false negative rate substantially for in vivo Cat 1 chemicals.

Concepts: Measurement, Metrology, In vivo, Assessment, In vitro, Test method, Measuring instrument, ANOVA Gauge R&R


Stalk lodging is a serious challenge in the production of maize and sorghum. A comprehensive understanding of lodging will likely require accurate characterizations of the mechanical properties of such plants. One of the most important mechanical properties for structural analysis of bending is the modulus of elasticity. The purpose of this study was to measure the modulus of elasticity of dry, mature maize rind tissues using three different loading modes (bending,compressionandtensile), and to determine the accuracy and reliability of each test method.

Concepts: Measurement, Psychometrics, Reliability, Accuracy and precision, Elasticity, Elastic modulus, Stiffness, ANOVA Gauge R&R


A colorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC)-based spot test can be used to identify hexavalent chromium on various metallic and leather surfaces. DPC testing on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces has unexpectedly given positive results in some cases, apparently indicating the presence of hexavalent chromium; however, the presence of hexavalent chromium has never been confirmed with more sensitive and accurate test methods.

Concepts: Measurement, Aluminium, Metal, Calibration, Chromium, Corrosion, Manganese, ANOVA Gauge R&R


Accurate assessment of zone II partial flexor tendon lacerations in the finger is clinically important. Surgical repair is recommended for lacerations of greater than 50% to 60%. Our goal was to evaluate ultrasonographic test characteristics and accuracy in identifying partial flexor tendon lacerations in a cadaveric model.

Concepts: Sample size, Evaluation, Evaluation methods, Assessment, Psychometrics, Reliability, Fingers, ANOVA Gauge R&R


Assay performance is dependent on the accuracy and precision of a given method. These attributes can be combined into an analytical Sigma-metric, providing a simple value for laboratorians to use in evaluating a test method’s capability to meet its analytical quality requirements. Sigma-metrics were determined for 37 clinical chemistry assays, 13 immunoassays, and 3 ICT methods on the Alinity ci system.

Concepts: Evaluation, Measurement, ELISA, Assay, Accuracy and precision, Immunoassay, Prime number, ANOVA Gauge R&R


Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although many in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, alone they are incapable of fully categorizing chemicals. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI consortium was developed to assess the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and establish an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One assay selected was the Short Time Exposure (STE) assay. This assay measures the viability of SIRC rabbit corneal cells after 5min exposure to 5% and 0.05% solutions of test material, and is capable of categorizing of Category 1 and No Category chemicals. The accuracy of the STE test method to identify Cat 1 chemicals was 61.3% with 23.7% sensitivity and 95.2% specificity. If non-soluble chemicals and unqualified results were excluded, the performance to identify Cat 1 chemicals remained similar (accuracy 62.2% with 22.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity). The accuracy of the STE test method to identify No Cat chemicals was 72.5% with 66.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Excluding highly volatile chemicals, non-surfactant solids and non-qualified results resulted in an important improvement of the performance of the STE test method (accuracy 96.2% with 81.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Furthermore, it seems that solids are more difficult to test in the STE, 71.4% of the solids resulted in unqualified results (solubility issues and/or high variation between independent runs) whereas for liquids 13.2% of the results were not qualified, supporting the restriction of the test method regarding the testing of solids.

Concepts: Evaluation, Measurement, Type I and type II errors, Sensitivity and specificity, Assessment, Test method, ANOVA Gauge R&R