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Concept: Angioplasty


Evidence from large, randomized, controlled peripheral artery disease trials reporting long-term outcomes using drug-coated balloons (DCBs) is limited. Previously, the DCB showed favorable 1-year outcomes compared with conventional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), yet durability of the treatment effect with DCBs remains unknown.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery disease, Cardiology, Peripheral vascular disease, Angioplasty, Balloon


To identify possible risk factors in predicting clinical outcome in critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).

Concepts: Angioplasty


Abstract Background: Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) has been proposed to be associated with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Zamboni et al reported significant improvement in neurological outcomes in MS patients who underwent Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA). Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the neurological outcomes in MS patients who underwent PTA. Method: Relapsing remitting MS patients who underwent PTA and completed at least one year post PTA were assessed. Patients with clinically isolated syndrome or progressive forms of MS were excluded. Primary endpoint was the proportion of relapse-free patients at one year. Secondary endpoints were change in mean EDSS score and proportion of patients with new MRI activity (defined as either Gadolinium-enhancing or new T2 lesions) at one year. Results: 45 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. Females constituted 71.1%. The mean age and mean disease duration were 33.76 and 7.16 years respectively. At one-year post-PTA, the proportion of relapse-free patients decreased from 84.44% to 66.67% (p = 0.085) whereas the mean EDSS score increased (p = 0.017). The proportion of patients with new MRI activity increased significantly from 17.78% to 44.44% (p = 0.012). 35.6% of patients stopped their DMTs. There was no difference among the patients who stopped their DMTs with respect to relapses, EDSS score or new MRI activity. Conclusion: The study revealed that PTA in relapsing remitting MS patients was not associated with any neurological improvement. However, there was an increase in disease activity irrespective of the adherence to DMTs. Further evidence of the association between CCSVI and MS is required.

Concepts: Retrospective, Magnetic resonance imaging, Multiple sclerosis, Clinically isolated syndrome, Relapse, Radiology, Angioplasty, Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency


To assess balloon dilation of the Eustachian tube with Eustachian tube balloon catheter in conjunction with medical management as treatment for Eustachian tube dilatory dysfunction.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Randomized controlled trial, Eustachian tube, Angioplasty


To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty(PTA) and transarterial infusion thrombolytics in treatment lower extremities (LE) arterial occlusions of thromboangitis obliterans (TO).

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Angioplasty


To evaluate the amputation-free survival after below the knee percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in a consecutive group of patients with critical ischemia of the lower extremity.

Concepts: Ischemia, Angioplasty, Limb, Appendage


Prostate carcinomas are often associated with lymphedemas of the leg following surgical treatment. Lymphedema is treated using complete decongestive therapy (CDT) with manual lymph drainage and compressive bandaging or stockings. Lymphedema resulting from a distinct iliac lymph node metastasis is a rare condition. A 73-year-old patient with a diagnosed prostate carcinoma presented with distinct swelling in the right leg. Iliac and leg vein thrombosis could not be ruled out. An ultrasound image revealed a large lesion surrounding the right iliac arteries. The patient was treated using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and a stent was implanted in the right external iliac vein. This resulted in an almost complete regression of the swelling in the leg within a short period of time. While lymphedema can generally be established by clinical examination, this specific case demonstrates that an additional vascular examination is advisable in the context of an underlying malignant condition.

Concepts: Cancer, Angioplasty


Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is characterized by restricted venous outflow from the brain and spinal cord. Whether this condition is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and whether venous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is beneficial in persons with MS and CCSVI is controversial.

Concepts: Neuron, Clinical trial, Multiple sclerosis, Angioplasty, Cerebrospinal fluid


-This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated clinical durability of Zilver PTX, a paclitaxel-coated drug-eluting stent (DES), for femoropopliteal artery lesions. Outcomes compare primary DES versus percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA); overall DES (primary and provisional) versus standard care (PTA and provisional Zilver bare metal stent [BMS]); and provisional DES versus provisional BMS.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cardiology, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Randomized controlled trial, Radiology, Clinical research, Angioplasty, Bare-metal stent


Background The treatment of peripheral artery disease with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is limited by the occurrence of vessel recoil and restenosis. Drug-coated angioplasty balloons deliver antiproliferative agents directly to the artery, potentially improving vessel patency by reducing restenosis. Methods In this single-blind, randomized trial conducted at 54 sites, we assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, 476 patients with symptomatic intermittent claudication or ischemic pain while at rest and angiographically significant atherosclerotic lesions to angioplasty with a paclitaxel-coated balloon or to standard angioplasty. The primary efficacy end point was primary patency of the target lesion at 12 months (defined as freedom from binary restenosis or from the need for target-lesion revascularization). The primary safety end point was a composite of freedom from perioperative death from any cause and freedom at 12 months from limb-related death (i.e., death from a medical complication related to a limb), amputation, and reintervention. Results The two groups were well matched at baseline; 42.9% of the patients had diabetes, and 34.7% were current smokers. At 12 months, the rate of primary patency among patients who had undergone angioplasty with the drug-coated balloon was superior to that among patients who had undergone conventional angioplasty (65.2% vs. 52.6%, P=0.02). The proportion of patients free from primary safety events was 83.9% with the drug-coated balloon and 79.0% with standard angioplasty (P=0.005 for noninferiority). There were no significant between-group differences in functional outcomes or in the rates of death, amputation, thrombosis, or reintervention. Conclusions Among patients with symptomatic femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with a paclitaxel-coated balloon resulted in a rate of primary patency at 12 months that was higher than the rate with angioplasty with a standard balloon. The drug-coated balloon was noninferior to the standard balloon with respect to safety. (Funded by Lutonix-Bard; LEVANT 2 number, NCT01412541 .).

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Blood vessel, Angioplasty, Vascular surgery, Gangrene, Intermittent claudication, Angiology