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Concept: Angiology

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A previously healthy 36-year-old Japanese woman presented with blood pressure that was difficult to control after an emergency cesarean section. CT revealed a disrupted abdominal aorta, severe stenosis of the renal arteries, and development of numerous collateral arteries.

Concepts: Kidney, Artery, Abdominal aorta, Renal artery, Caesarean section, Takayasu's arteritis, Arteritis, Angiology

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The aim of the study was to investigate whether changes in the level of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) over 2-years contribute to the development of subclinical macroangiopathy and/or microvascular complications in patients with DM1.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Low-density lipoprotein, Atheroma, Angiology

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Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is almost invariably associated with a generalized atherosclerotic involvement of the arterial tree and endothelial dysfunction. Previous short-term studies showed improvement of vascular reactivity and walking capacity in PAD patients by measures aimed at restoring nitric oxide (NO) production. NO is also known to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. We wished to assess whether the prolonged administration of an NO-donating agent (NCX 4016) improves the functional capacity of PAD patients and affects the progression of atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT).

Concepts: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Blood vessel, Endothelium, Intima-media thickness, Intermittent claudication, Angiology

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A systematic review and network meta-analysis was undertaken to consider the evidence for the efficacy and tolerability of placebo, cilostazol, naftidrofuryl oxalate and pentoxifylline in patients with intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Meta-analysis, Intermittent claudication, Angiology

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Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common cause of morbidity in the general population. While numerous studies have established the efficacy of prostanoids in PAD stages III and IV, the question of the role of prostanoids as an alternative or additive treatment in patients suffering from intermittent claudication (PAD II) has not yet been clearly answered. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2004.

Concepts: Medicine, Evidence-based medicine, Intermittent claudication, Ankle brachial pressure index, Angiology

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Takayasu’s arteritis is known to cover the youngest age group in the etiology of secondary hypertension. The type 3 pattern is rare and involves the thoraco-abdominal aorta and its main abdominal branches. Here, we present the imaging results of a patient who had been followed up for systemic arterial hypertension and was diagnosed with Takayasu’s arteritis type 3 by CT and MR angiography following bilateral detection of a parvus-tardus Doppler signal modulation in the renal arteries. We discuss the differential diagnoses that should be considered when observing a tardus-parvus Doppler signal. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2017.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Medical terms, Cardiology, Blood pressure, Cardiovascular diseases, Takayasu's arteritis, Arteritis, Angiology

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Background The treatment of peripheral artery disease with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is limited by the occurrence of vessel recoil and restenosis. Drug-coated angioplasty balloons deliver antiproliferative agents directly to the artery, potentially improving vessel patency by reducing restenosis. Methods In this single-blind, randomized trial conducted at 54 sites, we assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, 476 patients with symptomatic intermittent claudication or ischemic pain while at rest and angiographically significant atherosclerotic lesions to angioplasty with a paclitaxel-coated balloon or to standard angioplasty. The primary efficacy end point was primary patency of the target lesion at 12 months (defined as freedom from binary restenosis or from the need for target-lesion revascularization). The primary safety end point was a composite of freedom from perioperative death from any cause and freedom at 12 months from limb-related death (i.e., death from a medical complication related to a limb), amputation, and reintervention. Results The two groups were well matched at baseline; 42.9% of the patients had diabetes, and 34.7% were current smokers. At 12 months, the rate of primary patency among patients who had undergone angioplasty with the drug-coated balloon was superior to that among patients who had undergone conventional angioplasty (65.2% vs. 52.6%, P=0.02). The proportion of patients free from primary safety events was 83.9% with the drug-coated balloon and 79.0% with standard angioplasty (P=0.005 for noninferiority). There were no significant between-group differences in functional outcomes or in the rates of death, amputation, thrombosis, or reintervention. Conclusions Among patients with symptomatic femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with a paclitaxel-coated balloon resulted in a rate of primary patency at 12 months that was higher than the rate with angioplasty with a standard balloon. The drug-coated balloon was noninferior to the standard balloon with respect to safety. (Funded by Lutonix-Bard; LEVANT 2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01412541 .).

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Blood vessel, Angioplasty, Vascular surgery, Gangrene, Intermittent claudication, Angiology

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Intermittent claudication (IC) is the most common presentation of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease. Both medical and revascularization interventions for IC aim to increase walking comfort and distance, but there is inconclusive evidence of the comparative benefit of revascularization given the possible risk of limb loss.

Concepts: Vascular surgery, Intermittent claudication, Angiology