SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Angiography

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Image-guided endovascular interventions have gained increasing popularity in clinical practice, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as an attractive alternative to X-ray fluoroscopy for guiding such interventions. Steering catheters by remote control under MRI guidance offers unique challenges and opportunities.

Concepts: Artificial pacemaker, Angiography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Radiography, X-ray, Radiology, Medical imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging

150

In current clinical practice, peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are typically inserted using external anatomical measurements and a confirmatory chest X-ray, or using fluoroscopy. The Sherlock 3CG(®) Tip Confirmation System (TCS) allows magnetic tracking of the PICC tip during insertion and confirmation of the final location using ECG, meaning that most patients will not require a chest X-ray or fluoroscopy. The Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was evaluated in 2014 by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as part of the Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme. The company (C.R. Bard Ltd) identified four abstracts, one paper pending publication and questionnaire data from NHS users of the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS. None of the evidence included a comparator arm. Placement accuracy of PICCs using the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS where a chest X-ray was also used ranged from 79.5 to 100 %. The company reported that 9 out of 16 NHS centres that used the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS were no longer using chest X-rays to routinely confirm PICC tip location. The evidence did not report the need for catheter repositioning, re-insertion, staff time savings, treatment delays, length of stay, quality of life outcomes or complications. The company’s model found that the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was cost saving by GBP25.67 per patient compared to blind bedside PICC insertion. The External Assessment Centre (EAC) adapted the company’s model to test alternative assumptions for nurse time, theatre cost, malposition rate and reinsertion method, and found that the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was cost incurring by GBP9.37 per patient compared to blind bedside PICC insertion. The use of the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS in the UK NHS compared to blind PICC insertion using a confirmatory chest X-ray appears to hover around being cost neutral. Staff time and accuracy were key drivers in the model: evidence for these is sparse and the reality will vary in different situations. If evidence became available for outcomes after the initial insertion, such as replacement, complications and adverse events, the cost implications may change. The direction of this potential change is not known. NICE published guidance MTG24 in March 2015 recommending that the case for adoption of Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was supported by the evidence.

Concepts: Catheter, Radiology, Medical imaging, Fluoroscopy, Radiography, X-ray, Angiography, Peripherally inserted central catheter

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A 58-year-old woman presented with intermittent, nonexertional chest pain. She had been admitted for similar symptoms 2 months earlier; a coronary angiogram had revealed normal anatomy. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a pericardial effusion. A video is available at NEJM.org.

Concepts: Angiography, Pericardial effusion, Atherosclerosis, Atheroma, Myocardial infarction, Echocardiography, Cardiovascular system, Cardiology

37

It is unclear whether an evaluation incorporating coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is more effective than standard evaluation in the emergency department in patients with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndromes.

Concepts: Dublin, Hospital, Medical imaging, Magnetic resonance angiography, Angiography, Chest pain, Myocardial infarction, Computed tomography angiography

31

Coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention rely on the use of iodinated intravascular contrast for vessel and chamber imaging. Despite advancements in imaging and interventional techniques, iodinated contrast continues to pose a risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) for a subgroup of patients at risk for this complication. There has been a consistent and graded signal of risk for associated outcomes including need for renal replacement therapy, rehospitalization, and death, according to the incidence and severity of CI-AKI. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, prognosis, and management of CI-AKI as it applies to the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

Concepts: Nephrology, Angina pectoris, Heart, Angiography, Atheroma, Cardiology, Atherosclerosis, Coronary catheterization

29

This study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between stress test results and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) findings and comparative diagnostic performance of the 2 modalities in patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA).

Concepts: Cardiology, Radiography, Atherosclerosis, Computed tomography angiography, Atheroma, Angiography, Cardiac stress test, Medical imaging

28

To compare the diagnostic performance of 320-detector row computed tomographic angiography (CTA) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Radiology, Medical imaging, Magnetic resonance angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography, Digital subtraction angiography, Computed tomography angiography, Angiography

28

Aims: Angiographic guidance for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has substantial limitations. The superior spatial resolution of optical coherence tomography (OCT) could translate into meaningful clinical benefits. We aimed to compare angiographic guidance alone versus angiographic plus OCT guidance for PCI. Methods and results: Patients undergoing PCI with angiographic plus OCT guidance (OCT group) were compared with matched patients undergoing PCI with angiographic only guidance (Angio group) within 30 days. The primary endpoint was the one-year rate of cardiac death or myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 670 patients were included, 335 in the OCT group and 335 in the Angio group. OCT disclosed adverse features requiring further interventions in 34.7%. Unadjusted analyses showed that the OCT group had a significantly lower one-year risk of cardiac death (1.2% vs. 4.5%, p=0.010), cardiac death or MI (6.6% vs. 13.0%, p=0.006), and the composite of cardiac death, MI, or repeat revascularisation (9.6% vs. 14.8%, p=0.044). Angiographic plus OCT guidance was associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiac death or MI even at extensive multivariable analysis adjusting for baseline and procedural differences between the groups (OR=0.49 [0.25-0.96], p=0.037) and at propensity-score adjusted analyses. Conclusions: This observational study, the first ever formally to appraise OCT guidance for PCI decision-making, suggests that the use of OCT can improve clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PCI.

Concepts: Angiography, Cardiac arrest, Medical imaging, Myocardial infarction, Optics, Atheroma, Cardiology, Atherosclerosis

28

PURPOSE: To assess the relative efficacy of empiric gastroduodenal artery (GDA) embolization in reducing recurrent hemorrhage compared to image-guided targeted embolization. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected for consecutive patients who had catheter angiography for major upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from May 2008 to November 2010 (n = 40). The total number of cases were divided into two main groups according to angiographic findings: those that demonstrated a site of hemorrhage on catheter angiography (group 1, n = 13), and those where the site of hemorrhage was not identified on catheter angiography (group 2, n = 27). Group 2 was then further divided into patients who received empiric embolization (group 2a, n = 20) and those who had no embolization performed after angiography (group 2b, n = 7). RESULTS: The technical and clinical success rates for embolization in groups 1 and 2a were, respectively, 100 vs. 95 %, and 85 vs. 80 %. There was no statistical significance in the recurrent hemorrhage rate, reintervention rate, or 30 day mortality between targeted and empiric embolization groups. There were no complications attributed to embolization within this study cohort. CONCLUSION: Cases of duodenal-related major upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage where no embolization is performed have poor outcome. Empiric embolization of the GDA in patients with major upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage refractory to endoscopic treatment appears to be a safe and effective treatment, with low reintervention rates and good clinical outcome comparable to patients where the site of hemorrhage is localized and embolized with computed tomographic angiography or catheter angiography and embolized.

Concepts: Colonoscopy, Cohort study, Surgery, Computed tomography angiography, Gastroenterology, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Angiography, Upper gastrointestinal bleeding