SciCombinator

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Concept: Angiogenesis inhibitor

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Angiogenesis requires coordinated dynamic regulation of multiple phenotypic behaviors of endothelial cells in response to environmental cues. Multi-scale computational models of angiogenesis can be useful for analyzing effects of cell behaviors on the tissue level outcome, but these models require more intensive experimental studies dedicated to determining the required quantitative “rules” for cell-level phenotypic responses across a landscape of pro- and anti-angiogenic stimuli in order to ascertain how changes in these single cell responses lead to emerging multi-cellular behavior such as sprout formation. Here we employ single-cell microscopy to ascertain phenotypic behaviors of more than 800 human microvascular endothelial cells under various combinational angiogenic (VEGF) and angiostatic (PF4) cytokine treatments, analyzing their dynamic behavioral transitions among sessile, migratory, proliferative, and apoptotic states. We find that an endothelial cell population clusters into an identifiable set of a few distinct phenotypic state transition patterns (clusters) that is consistent across all cytokine conditions. Varying the cytokine conditions, such as VEGF and PF4 combinations here, modulates the proportion of the population following a particular pattern (referred to as phenotypic cluster weights) without altering the transition dynamics within the patterns. We then map the phenotypic cluster weights to quantified population level sprout densities using a multi-variate regression approach, and identify linear combinations of the phenotypic cluster weights that associate with greater or lesser sprout density across the various treatment conditions. VEGF-dominant cytokine combinations yielding high sprout densities are characterized by high proliferative and low apoptotic cluster weights, whereas PF4-dominant conditions yielding low sprout densities are characterized by low proliferative and high apoptotic cluster weights. Migratory cluster weights show only mild association with sprout density outcomes under the VEGF/PF4 conditions and the sprout formation characteristics explored here.

Concepts: Angiogenesis, Blood vessel, Coagulation, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Endothelium, Angiogenesis inhibitor

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Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive malignancy of the pleura and other serosal membranes originating from mesothelial cells that, despite decades of research, continues to have limited therapeutic options and is associated with a poor prognosis. Areas covered: MMs induce a strong inflammatory response that is also associated with neoangiogenesis and activation of proangiogenic factors. Given this, several anti-angiogenic agents have been trialled in a variety of malignancies including mesothelioma. Herein we summarise the role of angiogenesis in MM and the current available data targeting these pathways. Expert commentary: The addition of bevacizumab to cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy is currently a therapeutic option with a proven 2.7 month overall survival benefit in fit patients less than 75. Other antiangiogenics such as nintedinib show early promise, although the Phase III trial results are eagerly awaited before this therapy enters treatment paradigms. Beyond this, it is likely that combinations of antiangiogenics with immunotherapies will be investigated in future studies.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Malignancy, Mesothelioma, Angiogenesis inhibitor, Mesothelium

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The antitumor activity of angiogenesis inhibitors is reinforced in combination with chemotherapy. It is debated whether this potentiation is related to a better drug delivery to the tumor due to the antiangiogenic effects on tumor vessel phenotype and functionality. We addressed this question by combining bevacizumab with paclitaxel (PTX) on A2780-1A9 ovarian carcinoma and HT-29 colon carcinoma transplanted ectopically in the subcutis of nude mice and on A2780-1A9 and IGROV1 ovarian carcinoma transplanted orthotopically in the bursa of the mouse ovary. PTX concentrations together with its distribution by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI), were measured to determine the drug in different areas of the tumor, which are immunostained to depict vessel morphology and tumor proliferation. Bevacizumab modified the vessel bed, assessed by CD31 staining and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and potentiated the antitumor activity of PTX in all the models. Although tumor PTX concentrations were lower after bevacizumab, the drug distributed more homogeneously, particularly in vascularized, non-necrotic areas, and was cleared more slowly than controls. This happened specifically in tumor tissue, as there was no change in PTX pharmacokinetics or drug distribution in normal tissues. In addition the drug concentration and distribution were not influenced by the site of tumor growth, as A2780-1A9 and IGROV1 growing in the ovary gave results similar to the tumor growing subcutaneously. We suggest that the changes in the tumor microenvironment architecture induced by bevacizumab, together with the better distribution of PTX may explain the significant antitumor potentiation by the combination.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Mass spectrometry, Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, Adenocarcinoma, Mouse, Bevacizumab, Angiogenesis inhibitor

10

Resistance mechanisms against antiangiogenic drugs are unclear. Here, we correlated the antitumor and antivascular properties of five different antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) (motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, sunitinib, vatalanib) with their intratumoral distribution data obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). In the first mouse model, only sunitinib exhibited broad-spectrum antivascular and antitumor activities by simultaneously suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and desmin expression, and by increasing intratumoral hypoxia and inhibiting both tumor growth and vascularisation significantly. Importantly, the highest and most homogeneous intratumoral drug concentrations have been found in sunitinib-treated animals. In another animal model, where - in contrast to the first model - vatalanib was detectable at homogeneously high intratumoral concentrations, the drug significantly reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. In conclusion, the tumor tissue penetration and thus the antiangiogenic and antitumor potential of antiangiogenic RTKIs vary among the tumor models and our study demonstrates the potential of MALDI-MSI to predict the efficacy of unlabelled small molecule antiangiogenic drugs in malignant tissue. Our approach is thus a major technical and preclinical advance demonstrating that primary resistance to angiogenesis inhibitors involves limited tumor tissue drug penetration. We also conclude that MALDI-MSI may significantly contribute to the improvement of antivascular cancer therapies.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Signal transduction, Mass spectrometry, Angiogenesis, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Angiogenesis inhibitor

4

The efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors in cancer is limited by resistance mechanisms that are poorly understood. Notably, instead of through the induction of angiogenesis, tumor vascularization can occur through the nonangiogenic mechanism of vessel co-option. Here we show that vessel co-option is associated with a poor response to the anti-angiogenic agent bevacizumab in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases. Moreover, we find that vessel co-option is also prevalent in human breast cancer liver metastases, a setting in which results with anti-angiogenic therapy have been disappointing. In preclinical mechanistic studies, we found that cancer cell motility mediated by the actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3) is required for vessel co-option in liver metastases in vivo and that, in this setting, combined inhibition of angiogenesis and vessel co-option is more effective than the inhibition of angiogenesis alone. Vessel co-option is therefore a clinically relevant mechanism of resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy and combined inhibition of angiogenesis and vessel co-option might be a warranted therapeutic strategy.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Angiogenesis, Colorectal cancer, Bevacizumab, Angiogenesis inhibitor

3

Antiangiogenic treatment with bevacizumab, a mAb to the VEGF, is the single most widely used therapeutic agent for patients with recurrent glioblastoma. A major challenge is that there are currently no validated biomarkers that can predict treatment outcome. Here we analyze the potential of radiomics, an emerging field of research that aims to utilize the full potential of medical imaging.

Concepts: Medicine, Angiogenesis, Ranibizumab, Bevacizumab, Angiogenesis inhibitor, Angiogenesis inhibitors

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Despite multimodal therapy esophageal cancer often presents with poor prognosis. To improve outcome, tumor angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapeutic agents have recently gained importance. However, patient subgroups who benefit from anti-angiogenic therapy are not yet defined. In this retrospective exploratory study we investigated 9 angiogenic factors in patients' serum and tissue samples with regard to their association with clinicopathological parameters, prognosis and response in patients with locally advanced preoperatively treated esophageal cancer.

Concepts: Metastasis, Extracellular matrix, Angiogenesis, Obesity, Squamous cell carcinoma, Helicobacter pylori, Angiogenesis inhibitor, Nitrosamine

3

Antiangiogenic therapy is commonly being used for the treatment of glioblastoma. However, the benefits of angiogenesis inhibitors are typically transient and resistance often develops. Determining the mechanism of treatment failure of the VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab for malignant glioma would provide insight into approaches to overcome therapeutic resistance.

Concepts: Angiogenesis, Monoclonal antibodies, Glioma, Bevacizumab, Angiogenesis inhibitor

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KRIT1 mutations are the most common cause of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM). Acute Krit1 gene inactivation in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) changes expression of multiple genes involved in vascular development. These changes include suppression of Thbs1, which encodes thrombospondin1 (TSP1) and has been ascribed to KLF2- and KLF4-mediated repression of Thbs1 In vitro reconstitution of TSP1 with either full-length TSP1 or 3TSR, an anti-angiogenic TSP1 fragment, suppresses heightened vascular endothelial growth factor signaling and preserves BMEC tight junctions. Furthermore, administration of 3TSR prevents the development of lesions in a mouse model of CCM1 (Krit1(ECKO) ) as judged by histology and quantitative micro-computed tomography. Conversely, reduced TSP1 expression contributes to the pathogenesis of CCM, because inactivation of one or two copies of Thbs1 exacerbated CCM formation. Thus, loss of Krit1 function disables an angiogenic checkpoint to enable CCM formation. These results suggest that 3TSR, or other angiogenesis inhibitors, can be repurposed for TSP1 replacement therapy for CCMs.

Concepts: Immune system, Gene, Genetics, Angiogenesis, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Endothelium, Angiogenesis inhibitor

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Antiangiogenic therapy is commonly used in the clinic, but its beneficial effects are short-lived, leading to tumor relapse within months. Here, we found that the efficacy of angiogenic inhibitors targeting the VEGF/VEGFR pathway was dependent on induction of the angiostatic and immune-stimulatory chemokine CXCL14 in mouse models of pancreatic neuroendocrine and mammary tumors. In response, tumors reinitiated angiogenesis and immune suppression by activating PI3K signaling in all CD11b+ cells, rendering tumors nonresponsive to VEGF/VEGFR inhibition. Adaptive resistance was also associated with an increase in Gr1+CD11b+ cells, but targeting Gr1+ cells was not sufficient to further sensitize angiogenic blockade because tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) would compensate for the lack of such cells and vice versa, leading to an oscillating pattern of distinct immune-cell populations. However, PI3K inhibition in CD11b+ myeloid cells generated an enduring angiostatic and immune-stimulatory environment in which antiangiogenic therapy remained efficient.

Concepts: Immune system, Oncology, Angiogenesis, Tumor, Inhibitor, Bevacizumab, Angiogenesis inhibitor, Angiology