SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva

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Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening has been introduced into some health systems and could easily be supplemented with broader vascular screening. The aim of this study was to evaluate the screening set-up and investigate combined screening for AAA, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and possible hypertension (HT), and detection rates.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Atherosclerosis, Aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva

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In 2009, we described morphologic findings in 22 patients having resection of an ascending aortic aneurysm in the previous 11 years at the Baylor University Medical Center, and histologic examination of the aneurysmal wall disclosed classic findings of syphilitic aortitis. The major purpose of that extensively illustrated report was to describe the characteristic gross features of the aneurysm such that syphilitic aortitis might be better recognized at operation and appropriate antibiotics administered postoperatively. The aim of the present study was to emphasize that syphilis remains a major cause of ascending aortic aneurysm. From January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014, we studied additional 23 patients who had resection of an ascending aortic aneurysm that again histologically had classic features of syphilitic aortitis. All 23 patients were found to have syphilitic aortitis grossly and histologically. The aneurysm involved the ascending portion of aorta in all 23, the arch portion in 12, and the descending thoracic portion in 10. In conclusion, syphilis has far from disappeared. It remains a major cause of ascending aortic aneurysm.

Concepts: Histology, Aortic aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aorta, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, Syphilis, Syphilitic aortitis, St. Louis, Missouri

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Rupture is the worst outcome of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The decision to operate should include counterbalancing the risk of aneurysm rupture against the risk of aneurysm repair, within the context of a patient’s overall life expectancy. Current surgical guidelines are based on population studies, and important variables are missed in predicting individual risk of rupture.

Concepts: Demography, Aortic aneurysm, Life expectancy, Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, Mathematical model

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Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) evolution is unpredictable. Moreover, no specific treatment exists for AAA, except surgery to prevent aortic rupture. Galectin-3 has been previously associated with CVD, but its potential role in AAA have not been addressed. Galectin-3 levels were increased in plasma of AAA patients (n=225) compared to controls (n=100). Moreover, galectin-3 concentrations were associated with need for surgical repair, independently of potential confounding factors. Galectin-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in human AAA samples compared to healthy aortas. Experimental AAA in mice was induced by aortic elastase perfusion. Mice were treated i.v. with the galectin-3 inhibitor modified citrus pectin (MCP, 10mg/kg, every other day) or saline. Similar to humans, galectin-3 serum and aortic mRNA levels were also increased in elastase-induced AAA mice compared to control mice. Mice treated with MCP showed decreased aortic dilation, as well as elastin degradation, VSMC loss and macrophage content at day 14 post-elastase perfusion compared with control mice. The underlying mechanism(s) of the protective effect of MCP was associated to a decrease in galectin-3 and cytokine (mainly CCL5) mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, galectin-3 induced CCL5 expression by a mechanism involving STAT3 activation in VSMC. Accordingly, MCP treatment decreased STAT3 phosphorylation in elastase-induced AAA. In conclusion, increased galectin-3 levels are associated with AAA progression, while galectin-3 inhibition decreased experimental AAA development. Our data suggest the potential role of galectin-3 as a therapeutic target in AAA.

Concepts: Protein, Gene expression, Aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aorta, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva

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The Non-Invasive Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Clinical Trial (N-TA(3)CT) is a Phase IIb randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, testing doxycycline (100mg bid) for inhibition of growth in the greatest transverse, orthogonal diameter of small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Aortic aneurysm, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva

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There is increasing awareness that women may have worse outcomes following repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aim of this study was to analyse the association between sex, age and in-hospital mortality after AAA using hospital episode data collected routinely at the nationwide level.

Concepts: The Association, Aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, Nationwide Building Society

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A 10-month-old girl with type I Loeys-Dietz syndrome developed a conspicuous aortic root aneurysm that was well demonstrated on chest X-ray/CT reconstruction. She underwent successful valve-spare repair of the ascending aorta.

Concepts: Heart, Aortic aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aorta, Marfan syndrome, Ascending aorta, Arteries of the thorax, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva

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The objective of this study was to assess whether functional genetic polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 3, 9, and 12 are associated with arterial enlargements or aneurysms of the thoracic aorta or popliteal arteries in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

Concepts: Heart, Aortic aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Matrix metalloproteinase, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva