Concept: Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva
To investigate whether oral fluoroquinolone use is associated with an increased risk of aortic aneurysm or dissection.
-This project by the International Consortium of Vascular Registries, a collaboration of 11 vascular surgical quality registries, was designed to evaluate international variation in the contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with relation to recommended treatment guidelines from the Society for Vascular Surgery and the European Society for Vascular Surgery.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a pathological condition characterized by an abnormal, localized dilatation of the lower part of the aorta. Due to a lack of data on the natural history of AAA and risk of death from other cardiovascular diseases attributable to AAA, the true number of AAA-attributable deaths may be higher than currently estimated. This study aims to produce more realistic estimates of the burden of AAA.
We sought to describe and analyze discrepancies between sexes in the outcomes of patients hospitalized for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA) by conducting a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. The review included all adult patients (≥18 years old) hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of rAAA between January 2002 and December 2014. In-hospital mortality differences between females and males were analyzed overall and separately among those receiving endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) or open AAA repair (OAR). In-hospital mortality for females declined from 61.0% in 2002 to 49.0% in 2014 (P for trend <0.001), while mortality for males declined from 48.6% in 2002 to 32.2% in 2014 (P for trend <0.001). Among those receiving EVAR, females were significantly more likely to die in the hospital than males (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.84). In addition, the odds of mortality among those receiving OAR were higher for females than males (adjusted OR, 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.31). These data provide evidence that despite overall decreasing trends in mortality for both sexes, females remain at higher risk of death compared with males regardless of surgical repair procedure.
Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) in patients with unfavorable proximal seal zones remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of proximal extension cuff usage for type I endoleaks in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms and unfavorable necks treated with the C3 Excluder repositionable endoprosthesis compared with the traditional Excluder stent-graft.
A 74-year-old man presented with back pain and collapse. A ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was successfully managed by endovascular aneurysm repair. Postoperatively, he developed gastric outlet obstruction owing to duodenal compression from the unevacuated retroperitoneal haematoma. In the absence of abdominal compartment syndrome, conservative management with gastric decompression and parenteral nutrition led to a full recovery.
PURPOSE: Neutrophils have been shown to be involved in all stages of human and experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. The initial processes of neutrophil rolling and trapping in the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) are mediated mainly by P-selectin expressed by activated platelets. In the present study, we propose to evaluate the beneficial effect of fucoidan, a competitive binding agent of P-selectin, on aneurysmal growth in a rat model of aortic aneurysm with neutrophil enrichment of the ILT induced by repeated episodes of weak bacteremia. METHODS: Sixty Lewis rats with experimental AAAs, developed from decellularized aortic xenografts, were divided into four groups. Two groups were used as controls: group fucoidan control (FC) was treated with 200 mg of fucoidan (F) delivered by 2 mL, 4-week osmotic pumps placed intraperitoneally before closing the abdomen, and group C received saline instead of fucoidan. Two more groups were injected weekly with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis [Pg]): group F+Pg received 200 mg of intraperitoneal fucoidan and group Pg received saline. AAAs were harvested after 4 weeks and peripheral blood was sampled at that time. Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) and myeloperoxydase (MPO) antigen concentrations were determined in plasma and in AAA-conditioned media. Histology and P-selectin immunostaining were performed on AAA tissue samples. RESULTS: Comparing rats injected with Pg, those receiving fucoidan presented reduced aneurysmal diameter. Histologic analysis of AAAs showed that fucoidan reduced the ILT thickness in Pg-injected rats, with fewer trapped neutrophils, and with signs of a healing process, as observed in control group C. Immunohistological analysis revealed a substantial decrease in P-selectin immunostaining at the luminal surface of aneurysms in fucoidan-treated rats compared to the other groups, suggesting an interaction between fucoidan and P-selectin. A significant decrease in MPO concentrations in both plasma and conditioned medium was induced by fucoidan treatment in Pg-injected rats, reflecting a pacification of the ILT biological activity. This effect was associated with a reduction in neutrophil activation and apoptosis, reflected by a significant decrease in cf-DNA concentration in both plasma and conditioned medium of fucoidan-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that fucoidan has a beneficial effect on experimental aneurysmal degeneration by decreasing neutrophil activation in the ILT enhanced by weak pathogen contamination. This effect seems to be related to its interaction with P-selectin, which may decrease the trapping of neutrophils into the ILT. Fucoidan could represent a therapeutic option in AAAs to decrease the neutrophil activation involved in the degenerative process of aneurysmal expansion and rupture.
Spinal cord ischemia is a potentially devastating complication after thoracic endovascular aorta repair (TEVAR). Patients with spinal cord ischemia after TEVAR often develop paraplegia, which is considered irreversible, and have significant increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a patient with unusual late complete neurologic recovery of acute-onset paraplegia after TEVAR for an infected thoracic aortic aneurysm.
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial endoleak embolization using the liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). METHODS: Over a 7-year period eleven patients (6 women, 5 men; mean age 68 years, range 37-83 years) underwent transarterial embolization of a type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using the liquid embolic agent Onyx. Two patients (18 %) had a simple type II endoleak with only one artery in communication with the aneurysm sac, whereas 9 patients (82 %) had a complex type II endoleak with multiple communicating vessels. We retrospectively analyzed the technical and clinical success of transarterial type II endoleak embolization with Onyx. Complete embolization of the nidus was defined as technical success. Embolization was considered clinically successful when volume of the aneurysm sac was stable or decreased on follow-up CT scans. RESULT: Mean follow-up time was 26.0 (range 6-50) months. Clinical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients (73 %). Transarterial nidus embolization with Onyx was technically successful in 6 of 11 patients (55 %). In three cases the nidus was embolized without direct catheterization from a more distal access through the network of collateral vessels. CONCLUSION: Onyx is a favorable embolic agent for transarterial endoleak embolization. To achieve the best clinical results, complete occlusion of the nidus is mandatory.
Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when the local wall stress exceeds the local wall strength. Knowledge of AAA wall mechanics plays a fundamental role in the development and advancement of AAA rupture risk assessment tools. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the biaxial mechanical properties of AAA tissue. Multiple biaxial test protocols were performed on AAA samples harvested from 28 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Both the Tangential Modulus ™ and stretch ratio (λ) were recorded and compared in both the circumferential (ϴ) and longitudinal (L) directions at physiologically relevant stress levels, the influence of patient specific factors such as sex, age AAA diameter and status were examined. The biomechanical response was also fit to a hyperplastic material model. The AAA tissue was found to be anisotropic with a greater tendency to stiffen in the circumferential direction compared to the longitudinal direction. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model represented the data well and the properties were not influenced by the investigated patient specific factors however, a future study utilizing a larger cohort of patients is warranted to confirm these findings. This work provides further insights on the biomechanical behavior of AAA and may be useful in the development of more reliable rupture risk assessment tools.