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Concept: Anal sex


Recently, the world has experienced a rapidly escalating outbreak of infectious syphilis primarily affecting men who have sex with men (MSM); many are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-1 infection. The prevailing hypothesis is that HAART availability and effectiveness have led to the perception among both individuals who are HIV-1 infected and those who are uninfected that HIV-1 transmission has become much less likely, and the effects of HIV-1 infection less deadly. This is expected to result in increased sexual risk-taking, especially unprotected anal intercourse, leading to more non-HIV-1 STDs, including gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis. However, syphilis incidence has increased more rapidly than other STDs. We hypothesise that HAART downregulates the innate and acquired immune responses to Treponema pallidum and that this biological explanation plays an important role in the syphilis epidemic.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Immune system, Epidemiology, Chlamydia infection, Syphilis, Anal sex


The Italian society of colo-rectal surgery (SICCR) is dedicated to improving the study, prevention and management of the diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. One of the aims of the society is to establish guidelines to the treatment of these diseases. These guidelines are based on the international literature and on the best available evidence. Clinical practice guidelines are one of the most important instruments to provide therapeutic decision-making support, based on the best scientific evidence available at the time. Guidelines are advisory and not prescriptive, susceptible to continual variations secondary to innovations and new scientific evidence. These guidelines are a guide for all colo-rectal surgeons and physicians who approach anal cancer.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, Cancer, Human papillomavirus, Physician, Anal cancer, Rectum, Anal sex



Rectal microbicides are needed to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse. The MTN-007 study was designed to assess the safety (general and mucosal), adherence, and acceptability of a new reduced glycerin formulation of tenofovir 1% gel.

Concepts: Iron, Rectum, Anal sex, Potassium permanganate


The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associations between anal intercourse and fecal incontinence.

Concepts: Fecal incontinence, Anal sex


Squamous cell carcinomas of the anus and anal canal represent a model of a cancer and perhaps the first where level 1 evidence supported primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in treating locoregional disease with curative intent. The majority of tumours are associated with infection with oncogenic subtypes of human papilloma virus and this plays a significant role in their sensitivity to treatment. However, not all tumours are cured with CRT and there remain opportunities to improve outcomes in terms of oncological control and also reducing late toxicities. Understanding the biology of ASCC promises to allow a more personalised approach to treatment, with the development and validation of a range of biomarkers and associated techniques that are the focus of this review.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 6 December 2016; doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.398

Concepts: Cancer, Disease, Oncology, Human papillomavirus, Lung cancer, Anal cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma, Anal sex


This study investigated how frequently a group of young heterosexual Australians (ages 15 to 29) saw a range of behaviors represented in pornography over the previous 12 months. Participants were recruited to an anonymous online survey. Those who reported having viewed pornography in the past 12 months (n = 517) indicated how frequently they saw each of a list of 17 behaviors when they watched pornography in the past 12 months. Men’s pleasure (83%) was seen frequently by the highest proportion of young people surveyed, followed by a man being portrayed as dominant (70%). Women were more likely to report frequently seeing violence toward a woman (p < 0.01). Men were more likely to report frequently seeing heterosexual anal sex (p < 0.01), ejaculation onto a woman's face (p < 0.01), women portrayed as dominant (p < 0.01), a man being called names or slurs (p < 0.01), and violence toward a man that appears consensual (p < 0.01). Younger age was significantly associated with frequently seeing women's pleasure (p < 0.05), violence toward women which appeared consensual, and all types of violence (p < 0.01). Older age was associated with frequently seeing men's pleasure (p < 0.01) and heterosexual anal sex (p < 0.05). Our findings draw attention to the gendered ways that behaviors in pornography are seen and identified by young heterosexual audiences.

Concepts: Female, Gender, Gender role, Woman, Transgender, Homosexuality, Sodomy, Anal sex


Apart from penile-anal intercourse, other anal sexual practices (rimming, fingering and saliva use as a lubricant for anal sex) are common among men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this study is to evaluate whether these anal sexual practices are risk factors for rectal gonorrhoea in MSM.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Epidemiology, Oral sex, Human sexual behavior, Chlamydia infection, Homosexuality, Sodomy, Anal sex


The Army implemented a comprehensive HIV characterization program in 2012 following repeal of the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell (DADT) policy banning openly homosexual individuals from serving in the United States military. Program staff administered a standardized case report form (CRF) to soldiers newly-diagnosed with HIV from 2012 to 2014 in compliance with new program requirements. The CRF documented socio-demographic, sexual and other risk behavior information elicited from Army regulation-mandated epidemiologic interviews at initial HIV notification. A majority of HIV-infected soldiers were male and of black/African American racial origin. In the HIV risk period, male soldiers commonly reported male-male sexual contact, civilian partners, online partner-seeking, unprotected anal sex, and expressed surprise at having a positive HIV result. DADT repeal allows for risk screening and reduction interventions targeting a newly-identifiable risk category in the Army. At risk populations need to be identified and assessed for possible unmet health needs.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial No Derivatives 3.0 License, which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, United States, United States Army, Homosexuality, Anal sex, Men who have sex with men, Creative Commons, United States armed forces


Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men’s stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men’s perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men’s self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Race, Gender identity, Man, Masculinity, Homosexuality, Anal sex