Concept: Anal fistula
We have devised a modified seton technique that resects the external fistula tract while preserving the anal sphincter muscle. This study assessed the technique when used for the management of complex anal fistulas.
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to document our recent experience in managing horseshoe fistula of cryptoglandular origin with a modification of the Hanley procedure using a hybrid elastic one-stage cutting seton. METHODS: Surgical outcomes of the modified Hanley procedure for horseshoe fistulae using a seton from 2004 through 2010 were analyzed. The seton fashioned from a surgical glove was tied around the sphincter under less tension than a traditional cutting seton, hence the definition of “hybrid seton”. In addition to excision of the superficial segments of the lateral tracts, deeper extensions into the ischiorectal spaces were curetted, and Penrose drains were placed. RESULTS: All of the patients were discharged on the first postoperative day. None required readmission or needed narcotic analgesics after discharge. Complete healing was achieved in all 21 cases at 8.0 ± 3.22 weeks postoperatively. Patients were able to return to regular work activity in 3.5 ± 1 weeks. The postoperative Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score did not differ significantly from the preoperative score (p = 0.317, Wilcoxon’s test). Recurrent fistula was noted in a single patient (4.8 %) after a mean follow-up of 20.9-months. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the hybrid elastic seton is a useful and safe additional modification for the treatment of horseshoe fistulae with the Hanley technique.
Background The mostly widely studied biomaterials for the sphincter sparing treatment of anal fistulas are fibrin glue and the anal fistula plug (AFP). However their overall mean clinical success is only 50-60%. As the understanding of the pathology of anal fistula, wound healing and the host response to materials has improved, so new biological sphincter-sparing strategies have been developed. The aim of this review is to assess the safety and efficacy of these novel techniques. Method PubMed, the Cochrane database and EMBASE were independently searched. All studies that investigated the potential of a biomaterial (defined as any synthetic or biologically derived substance in contact with host tissue) to augment the healing of anal fistula without sphincter division were included. Studies solely describing the role of fibrin glue or an AFP were excluded. Data extraction included type of material, fistula aetiology, treatment of the primary tract, fistula healing, incontinence, duration of follow-up and any specific complications. Systematic quality assessment of the included articles was performed. Results Twenty-three articles were finally selected for review. These included a variety of biological and synthetic systems that were employed to deliver selected components of the extracellular matrix, growth factors, cytokines, stem cells or drugs to the fistula tract. Conclusion To date no study matches fistulotomy with regard to long-term fistula eradication rate. This is probably due to implant extrusion, inadequate track preparation or an unsuitable material. Future techniques need to address all these issues to ensure success. Success should be validated by MRI or long-term follow-up.
: The ideal surgery following seton insertion for high anal fistulas remains debatable.
Several biomaterials have been proposed to treat anal fistula alone or in combination with other surgical procedures aiming to reduce recurrence rates while minimizing continence impairment. More recently a porcine dermal matrix injection has been proposed as infill biomaterial to treat fistulae. We propose an approach consisting of non-cutting seton positioning followed several weeks later by flap repair associated with dermal matrix injection into the fistula tracts. We report our experience with this two-staged procedure on 24 consecutive patients with complex anal fistulae with a median follow up of > 12 months. In our experience this two-stage approach seems to be safe and effective.
BACKGROUND: It was the aim of this prospective study to analyze both the feasibility and preliminary results of video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT) combined with advancement flap repair for complex fistulas in Crohn’s disease. METHODS: All patients with perianal Crohn’s disease suffering from complex fistulas who underwent definitive surgery using VAAFT combined with advancement flap repair were prospectively enrolled in the study. Only complex fistulas with concurrent stable disease and without any evidence of severe inflammatory activity or perianal sepsis were treated using the VAAFT technique. Patients with Crohn’s proctitis or prior proctectomy were not candidates for the procedure. VAAFT was performed by using the VAAFT equipment (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). Key steps included visualization of the fistula tract and/or side tracts using the fistuloscope and correct localization of the internal fistula opening under direct vision with irrigation. Diagnostic fistuloscopy was followed by advancement flap repair. In addition to feasibility, primary end points included detection of side tracts, success and continence status (assessed by the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score). Success was defined as closure of both internal and external openings, absence of drainage without further intervention and absence of abscess formation. Follow-up information was derived from clinical examination 3, 6 and 9 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Within a 3-month observation period (September to November 2011), VAAFT was attempted in 13 patients with Crohn’s associated complex fistulas. The completion rate was 85 % (11/13). In these 11 patients (median age 34 years, 64 % females), complex fistulas were transsphincteric (8), suprasphincteric (2) and recto-vaginal (1). Forty-six percent (5/11) had concomitant therapy with biologic drugs. In 36 % (4/11), VAAFT was performed with fecal diversion. Median duration of surgery was 22 (range 18-42) minutes. Using VAAFT, additional side tracts not detected preoperatively could be identified in 64 % (7/11). No morbidity occurred. After a mean follow-up of 9 months, the success rate was 82 % (9/11). No deterioration of continence was documented (Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score 2.4 vs. 1.6, p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Preliminary results of the addition of the VAAFT technique to advancement flap repair in Crohn’s fistulas demonstrate that this leads to a high identification rate of occult side tracts with encouraging short-term healing rates. Moreover, a completion rate of 85 % seems promising.
The management of enterocutaneous fistulae (ECF) is complex and challenging. We have examined factors associated with fistula healing at a National Intestinal Failure Centre, and have devised the first scoring system to predict spontaneous fistula healing prior to surgery.
- Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
- Published about 5 years ago
AIM: Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) is a novel sphincter-preserving technique for anal fistula. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the results in patients with a recurrent fistula. METHOD: Seventeen patients (9 males, median age 49 (30-76) years with a recurrent transsphincteric fistula were treated with a LIFT procedure between June 2008 and February 2011. All were followed prospectively for a median of 16 (5-27) weeks with clinical examination. Fifteen followed for 13.5 (8-26) months by clinical examination also had 3D anal ultrasound. RESULTS: The duration of the procedure was 35 (18-70) minutes. One patient developed a small local haematoma and one had a subcutaneous infection, but otherwise there was no morbidity. At follow-up, 11 (65%) patients had a successful closure, two (12%) had a remaining sinus, and four (23%) a persistent fistula. The incidence of persistent or recurrent fistulas at 13.5 months was 6 (40%) of 15 patients. No de novo faecal incontinence was reported. CONCLUSION: LIFT is a safe procedure for patients with recurrent anal fistula with healing at short and medium term follow-up comparable or superior to other sphincter-preserving techniques. Larger studies with longer follow-up are needed to define the ultimate role of LIFT in patients with recurrence. © 2013 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
To describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of bronchonodal fistulas occurring in seven adult patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB).
Fistulotomy is considered to be the golden standard for the treatment of low perianal fistula but might have more influence on continence status than believed. This study was performed to evaluate the healing rate after a fistulotomy and to show results for continence status.