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Concept: Amphetamines


Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a long-acting d-amphetamine prodrug used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults. LDX is hydrolysed in the blood to yield d-amphetamine, and the pharmacokinetic profile of d-amphetamine following oral administration of LDX has a lower maximum plasma concentration (C max), extended time to C max (T max) and lower inter- and intra-individual variability in exposure compared with the pharmacokinetic profile of an equivalent dose of immediate-release (IR) d-amphetamine. The therapeutic action of LDX extends to at least 13 h post-dose in children and 14 h post-dose in adults, longer than that reported for any other long-acting formulation. Drug-liking scores for LDX are lower than for an equivalent dose of IR d-amphetamine, which may result from the reduced euphorigenic potential associated with its pharmacokinetic profile. These pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of LDX may be beneficial in the management of symptoms in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Methylphenidate, Amphetamine, Lisdexamfetamine, Prodrug, Dextroamphetamine, Amphetamines


A new amphetamine extended-release liquid formulation (AMP XR-OS), intended for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, has been developed. This study was performed to determine if administration with food affected the rate of absorption or bioavailability of AMP XR-OS. The formulation was also compared with an equivalent dose of an extended-release mixed amphetamine salts reference product (30 mg) under fed conditions.

Concepts: Nutrition, Pharmacokinetics, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Amphetamine, Adderall, Dextroamphetamine, Amphetamines


Paper spray tandem mass spectrometry is used to identify and quantify eight individual amphetamines in whole blood in 1.3 min. The method has been optimized and fully validated according to forensic toxicology guidelines, for the quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA), and 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA). Additionally, a new concept of intrinsic and application-based selectivity is discussed, featuring increased confidence in the power to discriminate the amphetamines from other chemically similar compounds when applying an ambient mass spectrometric method without chromatographic separation. Accuracy was within ±15% and average precision was better than 15%, and better than 20% at the LLOQ. Detection limits between 15 and 50 ng/mL were obtained using only 12 μL of whole blood. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Analytical chemistry, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, MDMA, Releasing agent, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Amphetamines


A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for amphetamine (AM), phentermine (PTM), methamphetamine (MAM), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in commercial samples of homeopathic and phytotherapic medicines and dietary supplements is presented. The samples were submitted to a modified QuEChERS extraction procedure (at apparent pH 13) followed by electrophoretic separation in 0.1molL(-1) formic acid electrolyte (pH 2.4) and detection by ESI-MS/MS. A polyvinyl alcohol coated capillary was employed to prevent the adsorption of the analytes to the capillary wall. The limits of detection and quantitation were from 0.02 to 0.06μgL(-1) and from 0.06 to 0.21μgL(-1), respectively, with recovery ranging from 85 to 123% and the standard deviations were not greater than 6.1%. In addition, the separation occurs in less than six minutes.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, MDMA, Releasing agent, Euphoriants, Amphetamines


In this pharmacokinetic (PK) study in healthy adults, we sought to: (1) compare the PK properties of a novel amphetamine extended-release orally disintegrating tablet formulation (Adzenys XR-ODT™ [AMP XR-ODT]) to a reference extended-release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS ER) formulation and (2) assess the effect of food on AMP XR-ODT.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Crossover study, Norepinephrine, Amphetamine, Adderall, Dextroamphetamine, Amphetamines


Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly affects cognitive function, most frequently presenting as impaired processing speed (PS). There are currently no approved treatments for PS in this population, but previous studies suggest amphetamines may be beneficial.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, Adderall, Dextroamphetamine, Amphetamines


A simple and inexpensive method for the identification of four substituted amphetamines, namely, 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) was developed using an in-house constructed semi-automated portable capillary electrophoresis instrument (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D). Arginine 10mM adjusted to pH4.5 with acetic acid was found to be the optimal background electrolyte for the CE-C(4)D determination of these compounds. The best detection limits achieved with and without a sample preconcentration process were 10ppb and 500ppb, respectively. Substituted amphetamines were found in different seized illicit club drug tablets and urine samples collected from different suspected users. Good agreement between results from CE-C(4)D and those with the confirmation method (GC-MS) was achieved, with correlation coefficients for the two pairs of data of more than 0.99.

Concepts: Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, MDMA, Releasing agent, Clandestine chemistry, Ephedrine, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Amphetamines


Understanding the nature and time course of the pharmacodynamic effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications is useful. The Cognitive Drug Research Computerized Battery of Tests (CDR-CBT) is a 20-min battery of ten standardized, validated neuropsychometric tasks.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Educational psychology, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Amphetamine, Lisdexamfetamine, Adderall, Dextroamphetamine, Amphetamines


Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution, and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social, and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing. The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children.

Concepts: Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, MDMA, Releasing agent, Clandestine chemistry, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Euphoriants, Amphetamines