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Concept: Ammonia

271

The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions.

Concepts: Drinking, Ammonia, Salt, Water

247

Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake. We observed that the renal concentration mechanism couples natriuresis with correspondent renal water reabsorption, limits natriuretic osmotic diuresis, and results in concurrent extracellular volume conservation and concentration of salt excreted into urine. This water-conserving mechanism of dietary salt excretion relies on urea transporter-driven urea recycling by the kidneys and on urea production by liver and skeletal muscle. The energy-intense nature of hepatic and extrahepatic urea osmolyte production for renal water conservation requires reprioritization of energy and substrate metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in hepatic ketogenesis and glucocorticoid-driven muscle catabolism, which are prevented by increasing food intake. This natriuretic-ureotelic, water-conserving principle relies on metabolism-driven extracellular volume control and is regulated by concerted liver, muscle, and renal actions.

Concepts: Glucose, Kidney, Glycogen, Sodium, Ammonia, Urine, Urea, Metabolism

167

BACKGROUND: C-PiB has been developed as a positron-emission tomography (PET) ligand for evaluating fibrillar beta-amyloid (Abeta) in the human brain. The ligand is rapidly metabolized, with approximately 10% of intact tracer remaining 30 min after injection. When 11C-PiB is used as a treatment endpoint in intervention studies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a concern is whether the clearance of the tracer changes from one scan to the next, increasing within subject variability in the PET signal. Subjects enrolled in AD trials may start or stop medications that inhibit or induce xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes such as the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes. FINDINGS: We conducted CYP phenotyping in recombinantly expressed systems, and in human liver microsomes, to evaluate CYP isozyme contributions to the metabolism of PiB (carrier) and profiled microsomal and hepatocyte incubations for metabolites. The metabolism of PiB appears to be polyzymic, with direct conjugation via UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) also occurring. CONCLUSION: It is unlikely that CYP inhibition or induction will significantly influence the clearance of 11C-PiB.

Concepts: Xenobiotic, Ammonia, Enzyme inhibitor, Drug metabolism, Glycogen, Alzheimer's disease, Metabolism, Cytochrome P450

165

Room temperature operation, low detection limit and fast response time are highly desirable for a wide range of gas sensing applications. However, the available gas sensors suffer mainly from high temperature operation or external stimulation for response/recovery. Here, we report an ultrasensitive-flexible-silver-nanoparticle based nanocomposite resistive sensor for ammonia detection and established the sensing mechanism. We show that the nanocomposite can detect ammonia as low as 500 parts-per-trillion at room temperature in a minute time. Furthermore, the evolution of ammonia from different chemical reactions has been demonstrated using the nanocomposite sensor as an example. Our results demonstrate the proof-of-concept for the new detector to be used in several applications including homeland security, environmental pollution and leak detection in research laboratories and many others.

Concepts: Gas sensors, Ammonia, Hydrogen, Gas leak, Sensor, Nitrogen, Natural gas, Chemical reaction

164

Fuel ethanol production from sustainable and largely abundant agro-residues such as sugarcane bagasse (SB) provides long term, geopolitical and strategic benefits. Pretreatment of SB is an inevitable process for improved saccharification of cell wall carbohydrates. Recently, ammonium hydroxide-based pretreatment technologies have gained significance as an effective and economical pretreatment strategy. We hypothesized that soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia-mediated thermochemical pretreatment (SCAA) would overcome the native recalcitrance of SB by enhancing cellulase accessibility of the embedded holocellulosic microfibrils.

Concepts: Biofuel, Hydrolysis, Sugarcane, Ethanol, Cellulose, Ammonia, Bagasse, Ethanol fuel

157

Rapid development of agriculture and fossil fuel combustion greatly increased US reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in the second half of the 20th century, resulting in excess nitrogen deposition to natural ecosystems. Recent efforts to lower nitrogen oxides emissions have substantially decreased nitrate wet deposition. Levels of wet ammonium deposition, by contrast, have increased in many regions. Together these changes have altered the balance between oxidized and reduced nitrogen deposition. Across most of the United States, wet deposition has transitioned from being nitrate-dominated in the 1980s to ammonium-dominated in recent years. Ammonia has historically not been routinely measured because there are no specific regulatory requirements for its measurement. Recent expansion in ammonia observations, however, along with ongoing measurements of nitric acid and fine particle ammonium and nitrate, permit new insight into the balance of oxidized and reduced nitrogen in the total (wet + dry) US nitrogen deposition budget. Observations from 37 sites reveal that reduced nitrogen contributes, on average, ∼65% of the total inorganic nitrogen deposition budget. Dry deposition of ammonia plays an especially key role in nitrogen deposition, contributing from 19% to 65% in different regions. Future progress toward reducing US nitrogen deposition will be increasingly difficult without a reduction in ammonia emissions.

Concepts: Oxidizing agent, Nitric oxide, Ammonium nitrate, Redox, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen, Ammonia, Nitrogen

155

Binding of cellular α-dystroglycan (α-DG) to its extracellular matrix ligands is fully dependent on a unique O-mannose-linked glycan. Disrupted O-mannosylation is the hallmark of the muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (MDDG) syndromes. SLC35A1, encoding the transporter of CMP-sialic acid, was recently identified as MDDG candidate gene. This is surprising, since sialic acid itself is dispensable for α-DG-ligand binding. In a novel SLC35A1-deficient cell model, we demonstrated a lack of α-DG O-mannosylation, ligand binding and incorporation of sialic acids. Removal of sialic acids from HAP1 wild type cells after incorporation or preventing sialylation during synthesis did not affect α-DG O-mannosylation or ligand binding but did affect sialylation. Lentiviral-mediated complementation with the only known disease mutation p.Q101H failed to restore deficient O-mannosylation in SLC35A1 knockout cells and partly restored sialylation. These data indicate a role for SLC35A1 in α-DG O-mannosylation that is distinct from sialic acid metabolism. In addition, human SLC35A1 deficiency can be considered as a combined disorder of α-DG O-mannosylation and sialylation, a novel variant of the MDDG syndromes.

Concepts: Jason Statham, Amine, Ligand, DNA, Sialic acid, Gene, Ammonia, Protein

147

To investigate the relationship between serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular disease in Asians.

Concepts: Cardiovascular disease, Organic acids, Ammonia, Atherosclerosis, Uric acid

140

Mammalian cell lines are characterized by a complex and flexible metabolism. A single model that could describe the variations in metabolic behavior triggered by variations in the culture conditions would be a precious tool in bioprocess development. In this paper, we introduce an approach to generate a poly-pathway model and use it to simulate diverse metabolic states triggered in response to removal, reduction or doubling of amino acids in the culture medium of an antibody-producing CHO cell line. Macro-reactions were obtained from a metabolic network via elementary flux mode enumeration and the fluxes were modeled by kinetic equations with saturation and inhibition effects from external medium components. Importantly, one set of kinetic parameters was estimated using experimental data of the multiple metabolic states. A good fit between the model and the data was obtained for the majority of the metabolites and the experimentally observed flux variations. We find that the poly-pathway modeling approach is promising for the simulation of multiple metabolic states.

Concepts: Acid, Ammonia, Cell lines, Protein, Amino acid, Chinese hamster ovary cell, Metabolism, Cell culture

138

Coptis chinensis Franch has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases for over two thousand years. Berberine (BN), an isoquinoline alkaloid, is the main component of Coptis chinensis. The pharmacological basis for its therapeutic effects, which include hepatoprotective effects on liver injuries, has been studied intensively, yet the therapy of liver injuries and underlying mechanism remain unclear. We investigated the detoxification mechanism of Coptis chinensis and berberine using metabolomics of urine and serum in the present study. After the treatment with Coptis chinensis and berberine, compared with the cinnabar group, Coptis chinensis and berberine can regulate the concentration of the endogenous metabolites. PLS-DA score plots demonstrated that the urine and serum metabolic profiles in rats of the Coptis chinensis and berberine groups were similar those of the control group, yet remarkably apart from the cinnabar group. The mechanism may be related to the endogenous metabolites including energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and metabolism of intestinal flora in rats. Meanwhile, liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analysis verified the experimental results of metabonomics.

Concepts: Coptis chinensis, Biochemistry, Bacteria, Metabolomics, Traditional Chinese medicine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Metabolism