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Concept: American Psychological Association

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The most recent edition of the American Psychological Association (APA) Manual states that two spaces should follow the punctuation at the end of a sentence. This is in contrast to the one-space requirement from previous editions. However, to date, there has been no empirical support for either convention. In the current study, participants performed (1) a typing task to assess spacing usage and (2) an eye-tracking experiment to assess the effect that punctuation spacing has on reading performance. Although comprehension was not affected by punctuation spacing, the eye movement record suggested that initial processing of the text was facilitated when periods were followed by two spaces, supporting the change made to the APA Manual. Individuals' typing usage also influenced these effects such that those who use two spaces following a period showed the greatest overall facilitation from reading with two spaces.

Concepts: Effect, Affect, Eye, Typography, Period, American Psychological Association, Edition, Punctuation

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The American Psychiatric Association (APA) identified Internet gaming disorder as a new potential psychiatric disorder and has recognized that little is known about the prevalence, validity, or cross-cultural robustness of proposed Internet gaming disorder criteria. In response to this gap in our understanding, the present study, a first for this research topic, estimated the period prevalence of this new potential psychiatric disorder using APA guidance, examined the validity of its proposed indicators, evaluated reliability cross-culturally and across genders, compared it to gold-standard research on gambling addiction and problem gaming, and estimated its impact on physical, social, and mental health.

Concepts: Psychology, Epidemiology, Energy, Mental health, Mental disorder, Psychiatry, American Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association

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Child-rearing experts have long believed that praise is an effective means to help children with low self-esteem feel better about themselves. But should one praise these children for who they are, or for how they behave? Study 1 (N = 357) showed that adults are inclined to give children with low self-esteem more person praise (i.e., praise for personal qualities) but less process praise (i.e., praise for behavior) than they give children with high self-esteem. This inclination may backfire, however. Study 2 (N = 313; Mage = 10.4 years) showed that person praise, but not process praise, predisposes children, especially those with low self-esteem, to feel ashamed following failure. Consistent with attribution theory, person praise seems to make children attribute failure to the self. Together, these findings suggest that adults, by giving person praise, may foster in children with low self-esteem the very emotional vulnerability they are trying to prevent. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Self-esteem, All rights reserved, Social psychology, American Psychological Association, All rights reversed, Copyright, Vulnerability, Attribution

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This research examined if mothers' day-to-day praise of children’s success in school plays a role in children’s theory of intelligence and motivation. Participants were 120 children (mean age = 10.23 years) and their mothers who took part in a 2-wave study spanning 6 months. During the first wave, mothers completed a 10-day daily interview in which they reported on their use of person (e.g., “You are smart”) and process (e.g., “You tried hard”) praise. Children’s entity theory of intelligence and preference for challenge in school were assessed with surveys at both waves. Mothers' person, but not process, praise was predictive of children’s theory of intelligence and motivation: The more person praise mothers used, the more children subsequently held an entity theory of intelligence and avoided challenge over and above their earlier functioning on these dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Scientific method, Wave, Motivation, All rights reserved, American Psychological Association, All rights reversed, Copyright, Robert Sternberg

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Objective: The goal of this article is to review and highlight the relevance of social psychological research on self-regulation for health-related theory and practice. Methods: We first review research on goal setting, or determining which goals to pursue and the criteria to determine whether one has succeeded. We discuss when and why people adopt goals, what properties of goals increase the likelihood of their attainment, and why people abandon goals. We then review research on goal striving, which includes the planning and execution of actions that lead to goal attainment, and the processes that people use to shield their goals from being disrupted by other competing goals, temptations, or distractions. We describe four types of strategies that people use when pursuing goals. Results: We find that self-regulation entails the operation of a number of psychological mechanisms, and that there is no single solution that will help all people in all situations. We recommend a number of strategies that can help people to more effectively set and attain health-related goals. Conclusions: We conclude that enhancing health behavior requires a nuanced understanding and sensitivity to the varied, dynamic psychological processes involved in self-regulation, and that health is a prototypical and central domain in which to examine the relevance of these theoretical models for real behavior. We discuss the implications of this research for theory and practice in health-related domains. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Sociology, Management, Motivation, All rights reserved, American Psychological Association, Goal

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Identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia presents unique challenges but is critical to research and practice. This study examined: (a) the accuracy of assessments completed using various approaches in identifying substance use disorders, (b) their ability to discriminate between disorders of abuse and dependence, and © the benefits of using multiple indicators to identify substance use disorders. Data are from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The sample comprised 1,460 community-based adults with schizophrenia, 15.8% (n = 230) of whom were positive for a current (past month) drug or alcohol use disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). Clinician ratings, self-report, collateral reports, and results of hair and urine tests were compared to SCID diagnoses. Congruence with SCID diagnoses was good across approaches and evidence for superiority of one approach over another was limited. No approach discriminated between abuse and dependence. There was limited benefit of using multiple indicators. Findings suggest that the decision regarding the “best” approach for identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia may be made through consideration of practical issues and assessment purpose, rather than selection of the approach that yields the most accurate diagnostic assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Evaluation, Assessment, Mental disorder, Schizophrenia, All rights reserved, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, DSM-IV Codes, American Psychological Association

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This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Regression analysis, Race, Self-esteem, All rights reserved, Asian American, Racism, American Psychological Association, Racial segregation

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Objective: Relations between interpartner psychological conflict (IPC) and the sleep of men and women were examined, and depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed as intervening variables of these associations. Method: Participants were 135 cohabiting or married couples. The mean age was 36.50 (SD = 5.93) for women and 39.37 (SD = 7.33) for men. Most women (76%) and men (78%) were European American (EA) and the rest were predominantly African American (AA); there was a wide socioeconomic representation. Men and women reported on IPC used by their partner against them. Sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs, and multiple sleep quantity and quality measures were derived. Results: Dyadic path analysis in which both actor and partner effects were assessed was conducted. For women, greater IPC by the partner was related to elevated levels of anxiety, which in turn was associated with shorter sleep duration and worse sleep efficiency; anxiety was an intervening variable. For men, IPC by the partner was related to greater symptoms of anxiety and depression; the latter was an intervening variable linking IPC with sleep quality (lower efficiency, longer latency). Some partner effects were observed and indicate that for both men and women, one’s perpetration of IPC is related to increased anxiety in the partner, which in turn is related to longer sleep latency for the actor. Conclusion: Results build on this scant literature, and using objective well-validated measures of sleep highlight the importance of relationship processes and mental health for the sleep of men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Anxiety, Psychology, Marriage, Sleep, All rights reserved, American Psychological Association

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Australia has one of the world’s most rapidly aging workforces and will inevitably experience labor shortages as a result. It is therefore necessary to examine factors that promote ability to work among aging workers in order to sustain a healthy aging workforce. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of primary- and secondary-level organizational factors on work ability. A total of 306 employees participated in an online survey for this cross-sectional study. The results demonstrated that organizational nurturance (culture) and vocational strain indirectly predicted work ability, with work satisfaction mediating these relationships. Findings are discussed within the context of strategies for promoting work ability for all workers and retaining aging workers. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Cross-sectional study, Prediction, All rights reserved, American Psychological Association, All rights reversed, Copyright, Indirect effect, Workforce

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The relationship between treatment progress (as rated by both clients and therapists) and real relationship (also rated by both clients and therapists) was decomposed into between-therapist and within-therapist (between-client) effects and analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model. We reanalyzed a subset of the data, 12 therapists and 32 clients, from Gelso et al.’s (2012) study of brief, theoretically diverse outpatient treatment. Consistent with and extending previous research, clients whose therapists provided higher average levels of client-perceived real relationship across the clients treated by a given therapist had better progress ratings from both themselves and their therapists. Within each therapist’s caseload, differences between clients in client- or therapist-rated real relationship were unrelated to either client- or therapist-rated outcome. Clients whose therapists provided higher average levels of therapist-perceived real relationship, across the clients treated by the therapist, had worse progress ratings from the therapists. The results provide additional evidence for the importance of between-therapist differences in therapeutic relationship qualities, both client and therapist rated. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Mental health, Therapy, Psychotherapy, All rights reserved, American Psychological Association, Copyright, The Real, Therapeutic relationship