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Concept: American Heart Association


Approximately 300,000 people suffer sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) annually in the United States. Less than 30% of out-of-hospital victims receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) despite the American Heart Association training over 12 million laypersons annually to conduct CPR. New engaging learning methods are needed for CPR education, especially in schools. Massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW) offer platforms for serious games that are promising learning methods that take advantage of the computer capabilities of today’s youth (ie, the digital native generation).

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Drowning, Respiratory arrest, American Heart Association


The American Heart Association introduced the Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) metrics to assess and promote cardiovascular health. We examined the association between the LS7 metrics and noncardiovascular disease.

Concepts: Heart, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Circulatory system, The Association, Personal life, American Heart Association, Tony Award for Best Musical


BACKGROUND: It remains unclear which is more effective to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in those with public-access defibrillation, bystander-initiated chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or conventional CPR with rescue breathing. METHODS AND RESULTS: A nationwide, prospective, population-based observational study covering the whole population of Japan and involving consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with resuscitation attempts has been conducted since 2005. We enrolled all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac origin that were witnessed and received shocks with public-access automated external defibrillation (AEDs) by bystanders from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009. The main outcome measure was neurologically favorable 1-month survival. We compared outcomes by type of bystander-initiated CPR (chest compression-only CPR and conventional CPR with compressions and rescue breathing). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the type of CPR and a better neurological outcome. During the 5 years, 1376 bystander-witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of cardiac origin in individuals who received CPR and shocks with public-access AEDs by bystanders were registered. Among them, 506 (36.8%) received chest compression-only CPR and 870 (63.2%) received conventional CPR. The chest compression-only CPR group (40.7%, 206 of 506) had a significantly higher rate of 1-month survival with favorable neurological outcome than the conventional CPR group (32.9%, 286 of 870; adjusted odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.70). CONCLUSIONS: Compression-only CPR is more effective than conventional CPR for patients in whom out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is witnessed and shocked with public-access defibrillation. Compression-only CPR is the most likely scenario in which lay rescuers can witness a sudden collapse and use public-access AEDs.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, First aid, Defibrillation, Drowning, Artificial respiration, American Heart Association


A novel musical memory aid has been proposed for aiding laypersons in complying with the American Heart Association (AHA) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines of 100 compressions per minute (cpm).

Concepts: Death, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, American Heart Association


The American Heart Association set goals in 2010 to train 20 million people annually in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and to double bystander response by 2020. These ambitious goals are difficult to achieve without new approaches.

Concepts: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, American Heart Association


Heart failure is a common, costly, and debilitating syndrome that is associated with a highly complex drug regimen, a large number of comorbidities, and a large and often disparate number of healthcare providers. All of these factors conspire to increase the risk of heart failure exacerbation by direct myocardial toxicity, drug-drug interactions, or both. This scientific statement is designed to serve as a comprehensive and accessible source of drugs that may cause or exacerbate heart failure to assist healthcare providers in improving the quality of care for these patients.

Concepts: Health care provider, Pharmacology, Mathematics, Drug, Illness, Irritation, Number names, American Heart Association


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a leading cause of disability, cognitive impairment, and death in the United States and accounts for 1.7% of national health expenditures. Because the population is aging and the risk of stroke more than doubles for each successive decade after the age of 55 years, these costs are anticipated to rise dramatically. The objective of this report was to project future annual costs of care for stroke from 2012 to 2030 and discuss potential cost reduction strategies. METHODS: The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association developed methodology to project the future costs of stroke-related care. Estimates excluded costs associated with other cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, and congestive heart failure). By 2030, 3.88% of the US population >18 years of age is projected to have had a stroke. Between 2012 and 2030, real (2010$) total direct annual stroke-related medical costs are expected to increase from $71.55 billion to $183.13 billion. Real indirect annual costs (attributable to lost productivity) are projected to rise from $33.65 billion to $56.54 billion over the same period. Overall, total annual costs of stroke are projected to increase to $240.67 billion by 2030, an increase of 129%. CONCLUSIONS: These projections suggest that the annual costs of stroke will increase substantially over the next 2 decades. Greater emphasis on implementing effective preventive, acute care, and rehabilitative services will have both medical and societal benefits.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Heart failure, Heart, United States, Stroke, Heart disease, American Heart Association


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The authors present an overview of the current evidence and management recommendations for evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators responsible for the care of acute ischemic stroke patients within the first 48 hours from stroke onset. These guidelines supersede the prior 2007 guidelines and 2009 updates. METHODS: Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Stroke Association Stroke Council’s Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the stroke literature with emphasis on publications since the prior guidelines, and drafted recommendations in accordance with the American Heart Association Stroke Council’s Level of Evidence grading algorithm. RESULTS: The goal of these guidelines is to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care and detail aspects of stroke care from patient recognition; emergency medical services activation, transport, and triage; through the initial hours in the emergency department and stroke unit. The guideline discusses early stroke evaluation and general medical care, as well as ischemic stroke, specific interventions such as reperfusion strategies, and general physiological optimization for cerebral resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: Because many of the recommendations are based on limited data, additional research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke remains urgently needed.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Stroke, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Emergency medical services, Paramedic, Emergency medical technician, American Heart Association


Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival. In settings with prolonged ambulance response times, skilled bystanders may be even more crucial. In 2010, American Heart Association (AHA) and European Resuscitation Council (ERC) introduced compression-only CPR as an alternative to conventional bystander CPR under some circumstances. The purpose of this citation review and document analysis is to determine whether the evidentiary basis for 2010 AHA and ERC guidelines attends to settings with prolonged ambulance response times or no formal ambulance dispatch services. Primary and secondary citations referring to epidemiological research comparing adult OHCA survival based on the type of bystander CPR were included in the analysis. Details extracted from the citations included a study description and primary outcome measure, the geographic location in which the study occurred, EMS response times, the role of dispatchers, and main findings and summary statistics regarding rates of survival among patients receiving no CPR, conventional CPR or compression-only CPR. The inclusion criteria were met by 10 studies. 9 studies took place exclusively in urban settings. Ambulance dispatchers played an integral role in 7 studies. The cited studies suggest either no survival benefit or harm arising from compression-only CPR in settings with extended ambulance response times. The evidentiary basis for 2010 AHA and ERC bystander CPR guidelines does not attend to settings without rapid ambulance response times or dispatch services. Standardized bystander CPR guidelines may require adaptation or reconsideration in these settings.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Emergency medical services, Defibrillation, American Heart Association, Advanced life support


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The American Heart Association developed Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) as a metric defining cardiovascular health. We investigated the association between LS7 and incident stroke in black and white Americans. METHODS: The Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) is a national population-based cohort of 30 239 blacks and whites, aged ≥45 years, sampled from the US population from 2003 to 2007. Data were collected by telephone, self-administered questionnaires, and an in-home examination. Incident strokes were identified through biannual participant contact followed by adjudication of medical records. Levels of the LS7 components (blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, and diet) were each coded as poor (0 point), intermediate (1 point), or ideal (2 points) health. An overall LS7 score was categorized as inadequate (0-4), average (5-9), or optimum (10-14) cardiovascular health. RESULTS: Among 22 914 subjects with LS7 data and no previous cardiovascular disease, there were 432 incident strokes over 4.9 years of follow-up. After adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and region of residence, each better health category of the LS7 score was associated with a 25% lower risk of stroke (hazard ratios, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.90). The association was similar for blacks and whites (interaction P value=0.55). A 1-point higher LS7 score was associated with an 8% lower risk of stroke (hazard ratios, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: In both blacks and whites, better cardiovascular health, on the basis of the LS7 score, is associated with lower risk of stroke, and a small difference in scores was an important stroke determinant.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Obesity, Cardiovascular disease, Stroke, Black people, Body mass index, White people, American Heart Association