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Concept: American College of Surgeons

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Objective To examine the effect of surgeon sex on postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing common surgical procedures.Design Population based, retrospective, matched cohort study from 2007 to 2015.Setting Population based cohort of all patients treated in Ontario, Canada.Participants Patients undergoing one of 25 surgical procedures performed by a female surgeon were matched by patient age, patient sex, comorbidity, surgeon volume, surgeon age, and hospital to patients undergoing the same operation by a male surgeon.Interventions Sex of treating surgeon.Main outcome measure The primary outcome was a composite of death, readmission, and complications. We compared outcomes between groups using generalised estimating equations.Results 104 630 patients were treated by 3314 surgeons, 774 female and 2540 male. Before matching, patients treated by female doctors were more likely to be female and younger but had similar comorbidity, income, rurality, and year of surgery. After matching, the groups were comparable. Fewer patients treated by female surgeons died, were readmitted to hospital, or had complications within 30 days (5810 of 52 315, 11.1%, 95% confidence interval 10.9% to 11.4%) than those treated by male surgeons (6046 of 52 315, 11.6%, 11.3% to 11.8%; adjusted odds ratio 0.96, 0.92 to 0.99, P=0.02). Patients treated by female surgeons were less likely to die within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio 0.88; 0.79 to 0.99, P=0.04), but there was no significant difference in readmissions or complications. Stratified analyses by patient, physician, and hospital characteristics did not significant modify the effect of surgeon sex on outcome. A retrospective analysis showed no difference in outcomes by surgeon sex in patients who had emergency surgery, where patients do not usually choose their surgeon.Conclusions After accounting for patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics, patients treated by female surgeons had a small but statistically significant decrease in 30 day mortality and similar surgical outcomes (length of stay, complications, and readmission), compared with those treated by male surgeons. These findings support the need for further examination of the surgical outcomes and mechanisms related to physicians and the underlying processes and patterns of care to improve mortality, complications, and readmissions for all patients.

Concepts: Male, Statistics, Hospital, Surgery, Statistical significance, Physician, Surgeon, American College of Surgeons

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Resorbable screw fixation for orthognathic surgery is widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery and has several advantages. However, surgeons are concerned about using resorbable screws in orthognathic surgery because of possible postoperative complications such as relapse, screw fracture, and infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal stability of bicortical resorbable screw fixation after sagittal split ramus osteotomies for mandibular prognathism.

Concepts: Surgery, Reconstructive surgery, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, American College of Surgeons, Orthodontics, Microsurgery, Orthognathic surgery

28

To identify factors that account for variation in complication rates across hospitals and surgeons performing lumbar spinal fusion surgery.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Surgeon, American College of Surgeons, Spinal fusion

28

Situs inversus totalis is very rare and usually diagnosed coincidentally as it does not affect the patient’s life. Being unaware of the patient’s condition can lead to undesirable results from the surgeon and patient’s point of view when an emergency and forensic surgical intervention is required. We present a case who was operated on urgently for a firearm injury after receiving a preoperative diagnosis of situs inversus totalis. In conclusion, situs inversus totalis can cause difficulties for surgeons in case of emergency surgery and is usually diagnosed coincidentally. There are a few cases of situs inversus with lung cancer in the literature but this is the first time a case with a firearm injury has been reported.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Surgeon, American College of Surgeons, Situs inversus

27

During surgery, various images as well as other relevant visual information are usually shown upon request with the help of operating staff. However, the lack of direct control over the display may represent a source of stress for surgeons, particularly when fast decision-making is needed.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Computer graphics, Surgeon, American College of Surgeons

27

Pancreatic pseudocysts are frequent complications following acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as abdominal trauma. They originate from enzymatic and/or necrotizing processes within the organ involving the surrounding tissues through inflammatory processes following pancreatic ductal lesion(s). Pseudocysts require definitive treatment if they become symptomatic, progressive, larger than 5 cm after a period of more than 6 weeks and/or have complications. Cystic neoplasms must be excluded before treatment. Endoscopic interventions are commonly accepted first line approaches. Should these fail or not be feasible surgical procedures have been well established and show comparable results. In summary, pancreatic pseudocysts require a reliable diagnostic approach with a multidisciplinary professional management involving gastroenterologists and surgeons.

Concepts: Inflammation, Medicine, Hospital, Pancreas, Surgery, Gastroenterology, American College of Surgeons, Pancreatic pseudocyst

27

Osteopetrosis is a rare congenital (autosomal type) disorder of the skeletal system. Several variants have been described in the literature with grossly variant prognosis and clinical behaviour. Several reports of intractable osteomyelitis of the jaw bones secondary to osteopetrosis, particularly the mandible, have been published widely. However, there is no published report of the complete mandible sequestrating de novo, in the literature. An overview of this spectrum of sclerotic bone disease, its presentation in the oro-facial region, the diagnostic challenge it poses and the management dilemma it offers to the maxillofacial surgeon is discussed and a protocol for managing this disease effectively is presented. A clinical illustration of the complexities of management of osteopetrosis-induced osteomyelitis of jaw bones is demonstrated with a very rare case in which the entire mandible had sequestrated.

Concepts: Bone, Skeletal system, Surgery, Intramembranous ossification, American College of Surgeons, Human skeleton, Skeleton, Jaw

26

Sutureless technique following mandibular third molar surgery is an endearing concept in modern oral and maxillofacial surgery: regardless, few articles appear in literature with different methods, results, and flaps. A modern state of the art of this technique does not exist.In this article, an overview of studies regarding sutureless technique in mandibular third molar surgery is presented: relation to postoperative infection, recovery, and proper flap are discussed.

Concepts: Surgery, Reconstructive surgery, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, American College of Surgeons, Microsurgery, Art, Wisdom teeth

25

Even though modern surgical techniques are dominating reconstructive facial procedures, the capability to use facial epitheses for reconstruction is still an important skill for the maxillofacial surgeon. We present an international multicenter analysis to clarify which techniques are used to fixate facial prostheses. We contacted all maxillofacial departments in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Norway which were registered with the German society for oral and maxillofacial surgery (DGMKG). These centers were asked via electronical mail to provide information on the type of epithesis fixation systems currently in use. The return rate from 58 departments was 43.1% (n = 25). Overall, implant fixation was the preferred fixation system (92%). Plates were the second most common fixation technique (32%). No centers reported the standard use of non-invasive fixation techniques for permanent epithesis fixation. The main retention systems in use were magnets (24/25), other retention systems are used much less often. The current preferred fixation technique for facial epitheses consists of implant-based, magnet-fixated epitheses. For nasal prostheses, a plate-based, magnet-fixated system is often used.

Concepts: Surgery, Prosthetics, Dental implant, Reconstructive surgery, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, American College of Surgeons, Microsurgery

25

Active violent incidents are dynamic and challenging situations that can produce a significant amount of preventable deaths. Lessons learned from the military?s experience in Afghanistan and Iraq through the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care and the 75th Ranger Regiment?s Ranger First Responder Program have helped create the Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC) to address the uniqueness of similar wounding patterns and to end preventable deaths. We propose a whole-community approach to active violent incidents, using the C-TECC Trauma Chain of Survival and a tiered approach for training and responsibilities: the first care provider, nonmedical professional first responders, medical first responders, and physicians and trauma surgeons. The different tiers are critical early links in the Chain of Survival and this approach will have a significant impact on active violent incidents.

Concepts: Hospital, Physician, First aid, Ambulance, American College of Surgeons, United States Army, Certified first responder, Ranger School