Concept: Ambulatory care
Little is known about how physician time is allocated in ambulatory care.
- CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
- Published over 2 years ago
Variations in the prevalence of traditional cardiac risk factors only partially account for geographic variations in the incidence of cardiovascular disease. We examined the extent to which preventive ambulatory health care services contribute to geographic variations in cardiovascular event rates.
To determine the cost-effectiveness of nurse practitioners delivering primary and specialised ambulatory care.
Hospitalisations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs), a group of chronic and acute illnesses considered not to require inpatient treatment if timely and appropriate ambulatory care is received, and early rehospitalisations are common and costly. We sought to determine whether individuals with depression are at increased risk of hospitalisations for ACSCs, and rehospitalisation for the same or another ACSC, within 30 days.
Missed evidence-based monitoring in high-risk conditions (e.g., cancer) leads to delayed diagnosis. Current technological solutions fail to close this safety gap. In response, we aim to demonstrate a novel method to identify common vulnerabilities across clinics and generate attributes for context-flexible population-level monitoring solutions for widespread implementation to improve quality.
Patient safety gained widespread public attention in the last 20 years. However, most patient safety research relied upon professionals' exceptions and was realised especially in the hospital sector. Gradually patients' attention has been focused on safety campaigns in inpatient care. We aimed to better assess patients' perceptions in primary and ambulatory care.
OBJECTIVE:To examine recent national trends in psychotropic use for very young children at US outpatient medical visits.METHODS:Data for 2- to 5-year-old children (N = 43 598) from the 1994-2009 National Ambulatory and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys were used to estimate the weighted percentage of visits with psychotropic prescriptions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with psychotropic use. Time effects were examined in 4-year blocks (1994-1997, 1998-2001, 2002-2005, and 2006-2009).RESULTS:Psychotropic prescription rates were 0.98% from 1994-1997, 0.83% from 1998-2001, 1.45% from 2002-2005, and 1.00% from 2006-2009. The likelihood of preschool psychotropic use was highest in 2002-2005 (1994-1997 adjusted odds ratio [AOR] versus 2002-2005: 0.67; 1998-2001 AOR versus 2002-2005: 0.63; 2006-2009 AOR versus 2002-2005: 0.64), then diminished such that the 2006-2009 probability of use did not differ from 1994-1997 or from 1998-2001. Boys (AOR versus girls: 1.64), white children (AOR versus other race: 1.42), older children (AOR for 4 to 5 vs 2 to 3 year olds: 3.87), and those lacking private insurance (AOR versus privately insured: 2.38) were more likely than children from other groups to receive psychotropic prescriptions.CONCLUSIONS:Psychotropic prescription was notable for peak usage in 2002-2005 and sociodemographic disparities in use. Further study is needed to discern why psychotropic use in very young children stabilized in 2006-2009, as well as reasons for increased use in boys, white children, and those lacking private health insurance.
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) affect more than 3% of children and are attributable to single-gene mutations at more than 1000 loci. Traditional methods yield molecular diagnoses in less than one-half of children with NDD. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) can enable diagnosis of NDD, but their clinical and cost-effectiveness are unknown. One hundred families with 119 children affected by NDD received diagnostic WGS and/or WES of parent-child trios, wherein the sequencing approach was guided by acuity of illness. Forty-five percent received molecular diagnoses. An accelerated sequencing modality, rapid WGS, yielded diagnoses in 73% of families with acutely ill children (11 of 15). Forty percent of families with children with nonacute NDD, followed in ambulatory care clinics (34 of 85), received diagnoses: 33 by WES and 1 by staged WES then WGS. The cost of prior negative tests in the nonacute patients was $19,100 per family, suggesting sequencing to be cost-effective at up to $7640 per family. A change in clinical care or impression of the pathophysiology was reported in 49% of newly diagnosed families. If WES or WGS had been performed at symptom onset, genomic diagnoses may have been made 77 months earlier than occurred in this study. It is suggested that initial diagnostic evaluation of children with NDD should include trio WGS or WES, with extension of accelerated sequencing modalities to high-acuity patients.
the derivation of a frailty index (FI) based on deficit accumulation from a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) has been criticised as cumbersome. To improve feasibility, we developed a questionnaire based on a CGA that can be completed by care partners (CP-FI-CGA) and assessed its validity.
With quality-of-care bonus payments now available for Medicare Advantage health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and for accountable care organizations in traditional Medicare, the need to understand the relative quality of care delivered to Medicare enrollees has increased. We compared the quality of ambulatory care from 2003 through 2009 between beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage HMOs and those enrolled in traditional Medicare, and we assessed how the performance of various types of Medicare HMOs differed from that of traditional Medicare for these same measures. We found that beneficiaries in Medicare HMOs were consistently more likely than those in traditional Medicare to receive appropriate breast cancer screening, diabetes care, and cholesterol testing for cardiovascular disease. We also found that Medicare HMO physicians were rated less favorably by their patients than were physicians in traditional Medicare in 2003; however, by 2009 the opposite was true. Not-for-profit, larger, and older Medicare HMOs performed consistently more favorably on clinical measures and ratings of care than for-profit, smaller, and newer HMOs. Our results suggest that the positive effects of more-integrated delivery systems on the quality of ambulatory care in Medicare HMOs may outweigh the potential incentives to restrict care under capitated payments.