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Concept: Aluminium chlorohydrate


We compared potential pre-concentration techniques for Nannochloropsis gaditana (Nng) by testing natural sedimentation; flocculation with aluminium sulphate, polyaluminium chloride and chitosan; and induced pH. Promising flocculation efficiencies and concentration factors were obtained in a short time with alkalinity-induced flocculation at an adjusted pH of 9.7 and with chitosan at an adjusted pH of 9.9 using a concentration of 30mgL. The sedimentation rates of alkalinity-induced flocculation were also evaluated. Additionally, viscosity, particle size distribution and Ca/Mg ions were analysed for pre-concentrated samples of N. gaditana (Nng) and the previously studied Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pht) which were obtained by various different harvesting methods under optimal conditions. The rheological properties of the concentrated algae suspensions of two microalgal species showed Newtonian behaviour. The mean diameters of the flocs were between 39 and 48μm. The Ca/Mg analysis showed that Mg is the triggering ion for alkalinity-induced flocculation in the conditions studied.

Concepts: Blood, Aluminium, Ion, Particle size distribution, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Flocculation, Hydrochloric acid, Aluminium chlorohydrate


Elevation in brain levels of aluminium can be neurotoxic and can cause learning and memory deficiencies. In Chinese medicine, Morus alba is used as a neuroprotective herb. The current study was intended to discover the recuperative effect of morusin against aluminium trichloride (AlCl3)-induced memory impairment in rats along with biochemical mechanism of its protective action.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Neurology, Aluminium, Iron(III) chloride, Boron trichloride, Aluminium chloride, Aluminium chlorohydrate, Aluminium fluoride


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Scutellaria barbata flavonoids (SBF) on memory impairment and neuronal injury induced by amyloid beta protein 25-35 in combination with aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) and recombinant human transforming growth factor-β1 (RHTGF-β1) (composited Aβ) in rats.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Present, Amyloid, Aluminium, Boron trichloride, Aluminium chloride, Scutellaria barbata, Aluminium chlorohydrate


The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of cranberry extract (CRAN) and/or losartan (LOS) against aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced hepatorenal damage associated cardiomyopathy in rats. To induce hepatorenal and cardiotoxicity, animals were received (AlCl3; 70 mg/kg i.p.) for 8 weeks day after day and treated with CRAN (100 mg/kg b.wt.) orally daily for 4 weeks started after 4 weeks from AlCl3 injection accompanied with an administration of LOS (5 mg/kg i.p.) three times weekly for 4 weeks. Our data revealed that, compared to AlCl3, administration of CRAN extract and LOS produced a significant improvement which was evidenced by a significant amelioration in myocardial and vascular indices, kidney and liver markers, lipid profile and oxidative stress indices. Furthermore, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination reinforced the previous results. It could be concluded that combination of CRAN extract and LOS hindered AlCl3 induced hepatorenal damage complicated cardiomyopathy in rats.

Concepts: Oxidative phosphorylation, Aluminium, Vitamin C, Cranberry, Chlorides, Aluminium chloride, Aluminium chlorohydrate, Aluminium fluoride


Thymoquinone (TQ), the main active ingredient in Nigella sativa oil, exhibits various bioactivities. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TQ on neurobehavioral and neuropathological alterations induced by aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) and D-galactose (D-gal)-in male rats and to explore the related mechanisms.

Concepts: Aluminium, Iron(III) chloride, Nigella sativa, Boron trichloride, Chlorides, Aluminium chloride, Aluminium chlorohydrate, Aluminium fluoride


This study investigated the behavior and mechanisms of cross-linked Durio zibethinus seed starch (CDSS) flocculants for landfill leachate treatment. A physical-chemical treatment method of coagulation-flocculation process and starch modification were implemented in treating stabilized leachate from Matang Landfill, Perak, Malaysia. In practical, the removal performance of color, COD, suspended solid and turbidity for CDSS flocculants were evaluated by combining with primary coagulant of polyaluminium chloride (PAC). In this study, the application of crosslinking modification for Durio zibethinus seed waste starch flocculants showed good improvement. The impurities removal for colour, COD, suspended solid and turbidity were increased by the addition of CDSS flocculants. Furthermore, the average size of the floc was also increased from 60.24 µm to 89.5 µm. Despite, the addition of CDSS flocculants produced a reduction of PAC coagulant from 2700 mg/L to 2200 mg/L, with 500 mg/L reduction on the PAC dosage dependency. Therefore, these results affirmed the potentials of crosslinked modification for Durio zibethinus seed waste starch flocculants in landfill leachate treatment.

Concepts: Polymer chemistry, Cross-link, Leachate, Landfill, Cross-linked polyethylene, Flocculation, Aluminium chlorohydrate


A novel lignin-based flocculant (LBF) with superior flocculation performance was prepared from paper mill sludge in this work. The functional groups of LBF and alkaline lignin (AL) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The flocculation performance of LBF integrated with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was tested in reactive dye wastewater treatment. Floc properties and color removals in multiple flocculation systems were discussed. Results indicated that the dye removal (93%) was greatly facilitated as the LBF was integrated with PAC (PAC + LBF). In addition, floc properties and color removals were significantly improved in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. In contrary, flocculation performance was greatly restricted in the presence of SO42-. LBF was less pH sensitive and shear sensitive than polyacrylamide (PAM) due to the enhanced charge neutralization and bridging action. On the basis of that, LBF could be used as a promising flocculant in dye wastewater treatment.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Sewage treatment, Infrared spectroscopy, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Sewerage, Flocculation, Polyacrylamide, Aluminium chlorohydrate


The aim of this study was to investigate the growth, nutrient removal and harvesting of a natural microalgae bloom cultivated in urban wastewater in a bubble column photobioreactor. Batch and continuous mode experiments were carried out with and without pH control by means of CO2 dosage. Four coagulants (aluminium sulphate, ferric sulphate, ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride (PAC)) and five flocculants (Chemifloc CM/25, FO 4498SH, cationic polymers Zetag (Z8165, Z7550 and Z8160)) were tested to determine the optimal dosage to reach 90% of biomass recovery. The maximum volumetric productivity obtained was 0.11 g SS L(-1 )d(-1) during the continuous mode. Results indicated that the removal of total dissolved nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorous under continuous operation were greater than 99%. PAC, Fe2(SO4)3 and Al2(SO4)3 were the best options from an economical point of view for microalgae harvesting.

Concepts: Blood, Iron, Aluminium, Flocculation, Hydrochloric acid, Chlorides, Aluminium chloride, Aluminium chlorohydrate


The objective of this study was to examine the impact of aluminium on the perennial macroalgae Chara hispida L. and its bioaccumulation capacities. Aluminium (Al) was introduced into the environment in the form of polyaluminium chloride, an agent utilized in the restoration of waterbodies. Research was conducted in an experimental setting using mesocosms (volume 0.8m(3)) placed in the littoral zone of a lake with C. hispida. Three doses of the coagulant were applied, each with a different volume: low - 6.1g Al m(-3), medium - 12.2gm(-3) and high - 24.5g Al m(-3). A significant acidification of environment was determined, which would imply the presence of toxic Al(3+) ions. It has been demonstrated that aluminium penetrates and accumulates in the cells of the charophyte. This caused damage to the thalli, which manifested itself in chloroses, necroses, flaking of the cortex cells and softening of the thallus, whose severity was proportionate to the dose of the coagulant. The first negative signs were observed after 24h. The study shows that C. hispida is a poor accumulator of aluminium (bioconcentration factor < 200), while bioaccumulation capacity was inhibited at the concentration of approx. 2.0mg Al g(-1) d.w. Accumulation in the thalli of the charophytes accounted for 58% of variation following removal of aluminium from the environment. The results of the experiment demonstrate a negative impact of aluminium on charophytes at concentrations used in aggressive restoration of lakes.

Concepts: Research, Aluminium, Green algae, Hydrochloric acid, Capacity, Aluminium chloride, Charales, Aluminium chlorohydrate


Aluminum chlorohydrates (ACH) are the active ingredients used in most antiperspirant products. ACH is a water soluble aluminum complex which contains several oligomeric polycations of aluminum with degrees of polymerization up to Al13 or Al30. The characterization and quantification of ACH oligo-cations remain a challenging issue of primary interest for developing structure/antiperspirant activity correlations, and for controlling the ACH ingredients. In this work, highly repeatable capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation of Al3(+), Al13 and Al30 oligomers contained in ACH samples was obtained at pH 4.8, owing to a careful choice of the background electrolyte counter-ion and chromophore, capillary I.D. and capillary coating. This is the first reported separation of Al13 and Al30 oligomers in conditions that are compatible with the aluminum speciation in ACH solution or in conditions of antiperspirant application/formulation. Al13 and Al30 effective charge numbers were also determined from the sensitivity of detection in indirect UV detection mode. The relative mass proportion of Al13 compared to Al13+Al30 could be determined in different aluminum chlorohydrate samples. Due to its simplicity, repeatability/reproducibility, minimal sample preparation and mild analytical conditions, CE appears to be a promising analytical separation technique for the characterization of ACH materials and for the study of structure/antiperspirant activity correlations.

Concepts: Polymer chemistry, Gel electrophoresis, Solubility, Monomer, Electrophoresis, Solution, Affinity electrophoresis, Aluminium chlorohydrate