Male pattern baldness can have substantial psychosocial effects, and it has been phenotypically linked to adverse health outcomes such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. We explored the genetic architecture of the trait using data from over 52,000 male participants of UK Biobank, aged 40-69 years. We identified over 250 independent genetic loci associated with severe hair loss (P<5x10-8). By splitting the cohort into a discovery sample of 40,000 and target sample of 12,000, we developed a prediction algorithm based entirely on common genetic variants that discriminated (AUC = 0.78, sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 0.69, PPV = 59%, NPV = 82%) those with no hair loss from those with severe hair loss. The results of this study might help identify those at greatest risk of hair loss, and also potential genetic targets for intervention.
Various trials have been conducted on the management and treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss using a variety of laser and light sources.
To confirm the association between male pattern baldness and coronary heart disease (CHD).
BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a genetically determined skin condition strongly age dependent and androgens are assumed to play an important role in its development. A link between AGA and prostate cancer has been hypothesized because of their similar risk factors. OBJECTIVE: We sought to systematically review the evidence available on the association between AGA and risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE and Cochrane for studies examining the association between AGA and risk of prostate cancer. We estimated pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. We also analyzed the OR for individual hair loss patterns, as defined by the Hamilton scale. RESULTS: A total of 7 case-control studies including 8994 patients-4078 cases and 4916 controls-were reviewed. One cohort study was identified but did not meet our inclusion criteria. There was statistically significant association between vertex baldness and prostate cancer (OR 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.44; Z = 3.13; P = .002). No statistically significant association between AGA (any pattern) and prostate cancer was identified (OR 1.03; 95% confidence interval 0.93-1.13; Z = 0.55; P = .58). LIMITATIONS: Only case-control studies, which may be subject to bias, met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Vertex pattern AGA was associated with a significant increased risk of prostate cancer. Any pattern AGA did not show a significant increase in the risk of prostate cancer.
Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss, however current treatment options are limited and moderately effective. In the past few years, there has been an increased interest in deciphering the molecular mechanisms responsible for this disorder, which has opened the possibility of novel treatments that promise to not only stimulate hair growth, but also to induce formation of new hair follicles. Areas covered: The future holds more effective topical treatments with less systemic side effects (such as topical 5-alfa-reductase inhibitors), prostaglandin analogs and antagonists, medications which act through the Wnt signaling pathway, stem cells for hair regeneration, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and more effective ways of transplanting hair. A comprehensive search was made using PubMed, GoogleScholar and Clinicaltrial.gov using different combination of key words, which included AGA treatment, new treatments for AGA, Wnt pathway, prostaglandins, PRP and stem cells for hair regrowth. Expert opinion: In the near future, treatments with topical 5-alfa-reductase inhibitors and prostaglandin agonists or antagonists are expected. More evidence is needed to verify the efficacy of PRP. Although hair follicle bioengineering and multiplication is a fascinating and promising field, it is still a long way from being available to clinicians.
X-Linked ichthyosis (XRI) is a keratinisation disorder caused by a mutation of the steroid sulfatase gene. An association with mental retardation and epilepsy has been reported earlier. Here, we report on a patient suffering from cerebellar symptoms such as yes/yes head tremor, scanning dysarthria, pronounced dysmetria and intention tremor, without any abnormalities of the cerebellum in MRI, in addition to XRI proven by molecular genetics. Furthermore, the patient suffered from anxiety disorder, depression, and a male pattern baldness. One of the patient' s brothers and a nephew showed a similar clinical presentation. Because of the fact that several members of the patient´s family suffered from similar symptoms, we consider a syndromic link between XRI and cerebellar disorder to be possible.
Chronic telogen effluvium (CTE), a poorly understood condition, can be confused with or may be a prodrome to female pattern hair loss (FPHL). The pathogenesis of both is related to follicle cycle shortening and possibly to blood supply changes.
Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), also known as female androgenic alopecia, affects over 21 million women in the United States with devastating effects on self-esteem and psychosocial functioning. Topical minoxidil 2% and 5% formulations are the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for FPHL. The length of time it typically takes to observe the benefits is a challenge for many patients, and may affect adherence to treatment. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 2% minoxidil solution used in combination with the botanical hair solution for 12 weeks in 54 subjects was evaluated in a multicenter, single-arm, open-label study. Assessments included investigator and subject ratings of improvement and subject satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in hair growth and overall treatment benefits in as early as 6 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings indicated significant satisfaction with hair volume and quality improvement at week 6 (P<.001). Subjects also indicated an increase in self-confidence and attractiveness at week 12 (P<.001). The investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this regimen provides clinicians with an effective treatment option for FPHL that also provides a high level of patient acceptance, which ultimately may help promote minoxidil treatment adherence.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(4):398-404.
Traction alopecia is hair loss that occurs after persistent pulling (e.g., during cosmetic procedures) on the roots of hair over time. Unlike plucking, which is painful, persistent pulling may go unnoticed until a patient presents with either bald spots or diffuse telogen shedding. Each hair follicle in the scalp contains an arrector pili muscle that, when contracted, erects the hair. The smooth muscle in the arrector pili expresses α1 adrenergic receptors (α1 -AR). As such, we hypothesized that contraction of the arrector pili muscle via an α1 -AR agonist would increase the threshold of force required to pluck hair during cosmetic procedures. Female subjects, ages 18-40, were recruited to study the effect of topically applied phenylephrine, a selective α1 -AR agonist, on epilation force and hair shedding during cosmetic procedures. In our blinded study, 80% of subjects demonstrated reduced shedding on days using phenylephrine compared to days using a placebo solution. The average reduction in hair loss was approximately 42%. In addition, the force threshold required for epilation increased by approximately 172% following topical phenylephrine application. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating the utility of α1 -AR agonists in the treatment of traction alopecia and hair shedding during cosmetic procedures.
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combined set of low level diode laser scanner (665 nm and 808nm) on hair growth, and assessment of safety and effectiveness of a new laser scanner on hair growth treatment procedure in androgenic alopecia.