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Concept: All rights reserved

151

Methoxyflurane was developed as an anaesthetic agent and introduced into clinical practice in 1960. It soon became evident that it possessed analgesic properties that other drugs did not. Due to toxicity concerns, it lost favour in general anaesthesia and had been largely abandoned by the late 1970’s. The manufacturer withdrew it in 1999, and the Food and Drug Administration in the United States did not renew its license in 2005. It has also been withdrawn by the European Union. However, it continues to be used in Australasia, primarily as an inhaled self-administered analgesic by emergency services immediately following trauma. It has become attractive for use in dental practice, likely due to its effectiveness as an analgesic and its additional sedative qualities. Its acceptance is controversial as its use in dentistry is largely elective. Despite its good safety record in analgesic doses, adverse reactions have been recorded. Practitioners should be well aware of risks associated with its use before considering administration, and carefully assess whether or not there are equally good alternative options that do not the carry the same risks. Methoxyflurane is reviewed below with an emphasis on its use in dental practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Clinical trial, European Union, United States, Anesthesia, Dentistry, All rights reserved, Copyright, Legal terms

128

Due to the remarkable global surge in activity in rare diseases research over the last six years, including contributions by the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC), the Consortium’s 2020 goals have been largely achieved by 2017. Though these developments are gratifying, enormous challenges remain. With this paradox in mind, IRDiRC set new global rare disease goals for the coming decade with the ultimate aim of improved health for people living with rare diseases worldwide. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Prevalence, All rights reserved, Copyright

121

In 2011, the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) was formed to unite public and private sector funders of research, patient advocacy groups, and scientific researchers to advance rare diseases research worldwide. Six years after its official launch, IRDiRC is now reflecting on its progress and achievements toward its ambitious goals for the rare diseases research collective - to develop 200 new therapies and the means to diagnose most rare genetic diseases by the year 2020. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Scientific method, Genetic disorder, Science, Research, All rights reserved, Rare disease, Copyright, Advocacy

83

Objective: In contrast to proposals that physical activity (PA) can be a substitute for alcohol use, people who engage in greater overall PA generally consume more alcohol on average than less-active peers. Acknowledging that both PA and alcohol use vary considerably from day-to-day, this study evaluated whether established associations reflect daily behavioral coupling within-person, are an artifact of procedures that aggregate behavior over time, or both. Methods: A life span sample of 150 adults (aged 19-89 years) completed three 21-day measurement bursts of a daily diary study. At the end of each day, they reported on their PA and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed in a negative binomial multilevel regression. Results: As expected, both behaviors exhibited limited between-person variation. After controlling for age, gender, and seasonal and social calendar influences, daily deviations in PA were significantly associated with daily total alcohol use. Once the within-person process linking PA and alcohol use was controlled, usual PA and total alcohol use were not associated. Conclusions: The established between-person association linking PA and alcohol use reflects the aggregation of a daily process that unfolds within-people over time. Further work is needed to identify mediators of this daily association and to evaluate causality, as well as to investigate these relations in high-risk samples. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Psychology, Aggregate, Behavior, Human behavior, Control, Wine, All rights reserved, Life span

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Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of lying in very young children. Sixty-five 2- to 3-year-olds were asked not to peek at a toy when the experimenter was not looking. The majority of children (80%) transgressed and peeked at the toy. When asked whether they had peeked at the toy, most 2-year-old peekers were honest and confessed to their peeking, but with increased age, more peekers denied peeking and thus lied. However, when asked follow-up questions that assessed their ability to maintain their initial lies, most children failed to conceal their lie by pretending to be ignorant of the toy’s identity. Additionally, after controlling for age, children’s executive functioning skills significantly predicted young children’s tendency to lie. These findings suggest that children begin to tell lies at a very young age. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: All rights reserved, Lie

59

Cognitive or intellectual investment theories propose that the development of intelligence is partially influenced by personality traits, in particular by so-called investment traits that determine when, where, and how people invest their time and effort in their intellect. This investment, in turn, is thought to contribute to individual differences in cognitive growth and the accumulation of knowledge across the life span. We reviewed the psychological literature and identified 34 trait constructs and corresponding scales that refer to intellectual investment. The dispositional constructs were further classified into 8 related trait categories that span the construct space of intellectual investment. Subsequently, we sought to estimate the association between the identified investment traits and indicators of adult intellect, including measures of crystallized intelligence, academic performance (e.g., grade point average), college entry tests, and acquired knowledge. A meta-analysis of 112 studies with 236 coefficients and an overall sample of 60,097 participants indicated that investment traits were mostly positively associated with adult intellect markers. Meta-analytic coefficients ranged considerably, from 0 to .58, with an average estimate of .30. We concluded that investment traits are overall positively related to adult intellect; the strength of investment-intellect associations differs across trait scales and markers of intellect; and investment traits have a diverse, multifaceted nature. The meta-analysis also identified areas of inquiry that are currently lacking in empirical research. Limitations, implications, and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Psychology, Personality psychology, Educational psychology, Intelligence, All rights reserved, Trait theory, Raymond Cattell, Capital accumulation

53

GM crops are the most studied crops in history. Approximately 5% of the safety studies on them show adverse effects that are a cause for concern, and tend to be featured in media reports. Although these reports are based on just a handful of GM events, they are used to cast doubt on all GM crops. Furthermore, they tend to come from just a few laboratories and are published in less important journals. Importantly, a close examination of these reports invariably shows methodological flaws that invalidate any conclusions of adverse effects. Twenty years after commercial cultivation of GM crops began, a bona fide report of an adverse health effect due to a commercialized modification in a crop has yet to be reported. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Scientific method, Agriculture, Epistemology, Report, Alternative medicine, Adverse effect, All rights reserved, Copyright

43

We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and © uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Scientific method, Prediction, Futurology, Prophecy, Psychometrics, Validity, Reliability, All rights reserved

41

Objective Moderate to severe chronic pain affects one in five adults. Pain may increase the risk of mortality but the relationship is unclear. This study investigated whether mortality risk was influenced by pain phenotype, characterised by pain extent or pain impact on daily life. Methods The study population was drawn from two large population cohorts of adults aged ≥50 years; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) (n=6324) and the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP) (n=10985). Survival analyses (Cox’s proportional hazard models) estimated the risk of mortality in participants reporting “any pain” and then separately according to the extent of pain (total number of pain sites; widespread pain according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria; widespread pain according to Manchester criteria) and pain impact on daily life (pain interference; and often troubled with pain). Models were cumulatively adjusted for age, sex, education and wealth/adequacy of income. Results After adjustments, the report of any pain (MRR 1.06, 95% CI (0.95, 1.19)) or having widespread pain (ACR 1.07 (0.92, 1.23) or Manchester 1.16 (0.99, 1.36)) was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. Participants who were often troubled with pain (1.29 (1.12, 1.49)) and those that reported “quite a bit” (1.38 (1.20,1.59)) and “extreme” (1.88 (1.54, 2.29)) pain interference had an increased risk of all-cause mortality. Conclusion Pain that interferes with daily life, rather than pain per se was associated with an increased risk of mortality. Future studies should investigate the mechanisms through which pain increases mortality risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Death, Proportional hazards models, Sociology, Gerontology, Ageing, All rights reserved, Chronic pain, Copyright

37

Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in non-avian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct non-avian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Evolution, Bird, Sound, All rights reserved, Paleontology, Copyright, Dinosaur, Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event