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Concept: Alexandria


Historian Ammianus Marcellinus documented the devastating effects of a tsunami hitting Alexandria, Egypt, on July 21, AD 365. “The solidity of the earth was made to shake … and the sea was driven away. The waters returning when least expected killed many thousands by drowning. Huge ships… perched on the roofs of houses… hurled miles from the shore….”. Other settlements around the Mediterranean were hit at roughly the same time. This scenario is similar to that of the recent Sumatra and Tohoku tsunamis. Based on geophysical surveys and sediment cores from the Ionian Sea we show that the 20-25 m thick megaturbidite known in the literature as Homogenite/Augias was triggered not by the Santorini caldera collapse but by the 365 AD Cretan earthquake/tsunami. An older similar megaturbidite was deposited after 14.590 ± 80 yr BP, implying a large recurrence time of such extreme sedimentary events in the Mediterranean Sea.

Concepts: Mediterranean Sea, Italy, Alexandria, Tsunami, Greece, Santorini, 365 Crete earthquake, Ammianus Marcellinus


Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) are responsible for nearly two million childhood deaths worldwide. A limited number of studies have been published on the epidemiology of viral respiratory pathogens in Egypt.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Alexandria, Egypt, Arabic language, Cairo, Nile Delta, The Egyptian


During the present investigation, a total of 220 fish specimens belonging to three different species, namely, little tunny Euthynnus alletteratus, African snook Lates niloticus, and striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus, were collected from January-November 2016 from the coasts off Abu Qir landing site, Alexandria City, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The collected fish samples were dissected and examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Twenty-three out of 220 (10.45%) fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with four species of trematode parasites belonging to three different families of the order Plagiorchiida. The recovered parasite species were collected and identified by applying light microscopic examinations. The present study recorded two new parasite species, namely, Stephanostomum alletterani sp. nov. and Bathycreadium mulli sp. nov., belonging to the families Acanthocolpidae and Opecoelidae and infecting E. alletteratus and M. surmuletus, respectively and re-descriptions of the two remaining species, namely, Acanthostomum spiniceps and Aponurus mulli of the families Acanthostomatidae and Opecoelidae, respectively, to clarify the measurements of some body parts. Morphological and morphometric characterizations revealed some differences between the present species and other related species detected previously. Future studies are recommended to include advanced molecular characteristics for these species.

Concepts: Biology, Fish, Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria, Nile perch, Red mullet, Mullus barbatus, Mullus surmuletus


Insights from the study of literature can inform and clarify concepts to guide psychotherapy practice and research. The author offers instances from narrative fiction (Durrell’s Alexandria Quartet) and poetry (Hopkins, Baudelaire) to illustrate how the formulation of experience in words that are evocative (vs. ordinary), original (vs. trite), and precise (vs. approximate) are able to capture attention, move the emotions, and challenge beliefs; and how linkages among experiences, vividly and precisely expressed, create and enhance narrative meaning-revealing the inherent relativity of individual meanings and the need to consider the aggregate of relevant perspectives in every interpersonal situation.

Concepts: Psychology, Fiction, Experience, Literature, Alexandria, Perspective, Concepts, Lawrence Durrell


Survival of severe pregnancy complication is known as maternal near-miss; however, studies on maternal near-miss are few in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. To identify the predisposing factors and diagnoses of near-miss cases, patients admitted to the maternal intensive care unit of El-Shatby University Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt, were assessed. A prospective survey was conducted where 448 cases that fulfill the WHO criteria of near-miss and admitted to El Shatby maternal intensive care unit during 2014 were interviewed, their records were reviewed and were followed up to assess their outcome. Low maternal education and inadequate antenatal care were significantly associated with maternal mortality. Severe pre-eclampsia and post-partum hemorrhage were the most common causes of admission (40.2% and 23.8% respectively). Mortality index was 8.5%. Sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction were significant predictors of maternal mortality.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Intensive care medicine, Mediterranean Sea, Obstetrics, Alexandria


Biochemical constituents and master elements (Pb, Cr, Cd, Fe, Cu, Zn, Hg, B, Al, SO42-, Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, and F) were investigated in six different seaweed species from Abu Qir Bay in the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The moisture level ranged from 30.26% in Corallina mediterranea to 77.57% in Padina boryana. On dry weight basis, the ash contents varied from 25.53% in Jania rubens to 88.84% in Sargassum wightii. The protein contents fluctuated from 8.26% in S. wightii to 28.01% in J. rubens. Enteromorpha linza showed the highest lipids (4.66%) and carbohydrate contents (78.95%), whereas C. mediterranea had the lowest lipid (0.5%), and carbohydrate contents (38.12%). Chlorophylls and carotenoid contents varied among the species. Total antioxidant capacity of the tested green seaweeds had the highest activities followed by brown and red seaweeds which had a similar trend of phenol and tannins contents. High reducing power was observed in all tested seaweeds extract except Ulva lactuca. Brown species had the highest amount of elements followed by red and green seaweeds. Notably, SO42- recorded the highest level in the tested green species (108.05 mg/g dry weight (DW)). The Ca/Mg and K/Na ratios reflected highly significant difference between seaweed species. This study keeps an eye on 29 parameters and by applying stepwise multiple regression analysis, prospective equations have been set to describe the interactions between these parameters inside seaweeds. Accordingly, the tested seaweeds can be recommended as a source of healthy food with suitable ion quotient and estimated daily intake values.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Metabolism, Nutrition, Antioxidant, Plant, Mediterranean Sea, Lipid, Alexandria


Infantile visceral leishmaniasis (IVL) is considered a rare and neglected disease in Egypt. An outbreak of the disease in El Agamy, Alexandria occurred in 1982 although the disease was previously reported 80 years before. Epidemiological and entomological studies were conducted ever since the 1982 outbreak to identify human cases, the parasite, reservoir host and the sand fly vector. Leishmania infantum MON-98, a new and unique zymodeme, was responsible of the disease. Stray dogs acted as the reservoir host and Phlebotomus langeroni was the proven vector. The parasite isolates from human cases were identical to the parasite isolates from the reservoir host and the sand fly vector. The El Agamy focus in 1982 was basically a rural Bedouin setting of recently built cement houses surrounded by lime stone fences. The numbers of human cases of IVL in this area have been declining, with the last reported case in 2005. This coincides with the completion of irregular urbanization of the El Agamy which resulted in the disappearance of P. langeroni. In this review, we characterize the old focus of IVL in El Agamy based on published literature to identify factors underlying the appearance and disappearance of the disease.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Leishmaniasis, Visceral leishmaniasis, Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania, Alexandria, Neglected diseases, Canine leishmaniasis


sCD14 is an acute phase reactant; few studies reported its prognostic value in B-CLL patients. This gave us the impetus to conduct this study. This study enrolled 40 newly diagnosed B-CLL Egyptian patients, presented to the Hematology Department of the Medical Research Institute in Alexandria University. The ZAP-70 was determined by flow cytometry whereas serum sCD14 concentration by human sCD14 sandwich ELISA method. The mean serum level of sCD14 was significantly higher among patients with positive ZAP-70, Binet stage C, Rai stage III-IV and high risk CLL prognostic index. It showed a significant positive correlation to the percentage of ZAP-70 expression and significant negative correlation to the hemoglobin concentration. Serum sCD14 concentration could be used to assess B-CLL patients initially as an additional prognostic marker, especially in low resources areas where flow cytometry is not available.

Concepts: Medicine, Evaluation, Hematology, Leukemia, ELISA, Flow cytometry, Alexandria, Cluster of differentiation


As part of the CEPHEUS study, CEPHEUS I was conducted in 2010 and 2011 in Cairo and then the CEPHEUS II study was carried out in Alexandria and Delta Regions in Egypt between April 2014 and August 2015 to determine the proportion of dyslipidemic patients on lipid-lowering treatment reaching LDL-C treatment goals.

Concepts: Alexandria, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Egypt, Egyptian Arabic, Years in the future, 2010s, Cairo, Gamal Abdel Nasser


Little is known about Coptic migrants' chronic disease health beliefs and treatment-seeking behaviours. Interviews to explore these issues and their relationship with church membership were conducted with 15 Coptic migrants in Southern England. Obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were most frequently identified as health risks for Coptic migrants. CVD was ascribed to stress and considered amenable to spiritual healing. Lay referral to medical practitioners who were church members was common but may devalue perceptions of family medicine. The Coptic Church functions as a community that addresses members' wider vulnerability. Central to this is the “parish nurse” role of the priest.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Chronic, Alexandria, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Egypt, Egyptians, Coptic language