Concept: Aldol reaction
The asymmetric synthesis of new chiral γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamide derivatives by highly diastereoselective Mannich-type reactions of N-(diphenylmethylene)glycinamides across chiral α-chloro-N-p-toluenesulfinylaldimines was developed. The resulting (S(S),2S,3S)-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamides were formed with the opposite enantiotopic face selectivity as compared to the (S(S),2R,3R)-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxyl esters obtained via Mannich-type addition of analogous N-(diphenylmethylene)glycine esters across a chiral α-chloro-N-p-toluenesulfinylaldimine. Selective deprotection under different acidic reaction conditions and ring closure of the γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamides was optimized, which resulted in N(α)-deprotected syn-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamides, N-sulfinyl-β,γ-aziridino-α-aminocarboxylamide derivatives, a trans-imidazolidine, and an N(α),N(β)-deprotected syn-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamide.
A highly diastereoselective (d.r. >99:1) and enantioselective (ee value up to 96 %) synthesis of trisubstituted cyclohexanols was achieved by using a one-pot sequential organocatalysis that involved a quinidine thiourea-catalyzed tandem Henry-Michael reaction between nitromethane and 7-oxo-hept-5-en-1-als followed by a tetramethyl guanidine (TMG)-catalyzed tandem retro-Henry-Henry reaction on the reaction products of the tandem Henry-Michael reaction. Through a mechanistic study, it has also been demonstrated that similar results may also be achieved with this one-pot sequential organocatalysis by using the racemic Henry product as the substrate.
Asymmetric addition of (triisopropylsilyl)acetylene to α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds took place in the presence of a cobalt/Duphos catalyst to give the 1,6-addition products in high yields with high regio- and enantioselectivity.
The (diisopinocampheyl)borane promoted reductive aldol reaction of acrylate esters 4 is described. Isomerization of the kinetically formed Z(O)-enolborinate 5Z to the thermodynamic E(O)-enolborinate 5E via 1,3-boratropic shifts, followed by treatment with representative achiral aldehydes, leads to anti-α-methyl-β-hydroxy esters 9 or 10 with excellent diastereo- (up to ≥20:1 dr) and enantioselectivity (up to 87% ee). The results of double asymmetric reactions of 5E with several chiral aldehydes are also presented.
The first total synthesis of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors chaetoquadrins A-C has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthesis include an aromatic Claisen rearrangement, asymmetric boron aldol reaction and acid-mediated spiroketalization. Comparison of spectral data for the synthetic spiroketals confirmed the proposed structure for these natural products.
The cryptolactones A1, A2, B1, and B2, which are α,β-unsaturated δ-lactones, were isolated from a Cryptomyzus sp. aphid. The structures were established by 1-D and 2-D NMR spectra and CI-HRMS. Their absolute configurations were determined with the Kusumi-Mosher method, combined with asymmetric total syntheses. The syntheses were accomplished with the Mukaiyama aldol reaction and olefin metathesis, which utilized the second-generation Grubbs catalyst for the key steps. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 0.97-5.3 μM.
This study describes, for the first time, the generation of a SF5 -substituted ester enolate from benzyl SF5 -acetate under soft enolization conditions, which in turn participates in aldol addition reactions in high yield. The reaction was applied in the synthesis of 3-SF5 -quinolin-2-ones, 3-SF5 -quinolines, and 3-SF5 -pyridin-2-ones, none of which have previously been reported. To provide guidelines for their use in drug discovery, the physicochemical properties of these building blocks were determined and compared with those of their CF3 - and t-Bu-analogues.
The first enantioselective total syntheses of architecturally interesting prenylated pyrroloindole alkaloids, (-)-pseudophrynamines 272A (3d) and 270 (3b), have been achieved starting from enantioenriched 2-oxindoles having all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. A common strategy involving a thio-urea catalyzed aldol reaction is employed for the total synthesis of both spiro(pyrrolidinyl-oxindole) and hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole alkaloids.
A novel diazo-cascade approach has been developed for the synthesis of nine-membered oxacycles utilizing readily accessible β-hydroxy vinyl ketones and vinyl diazo esters. The Rh(II)-catalyzed cascade reaction begins with carbene O-H insertion followed by an intramolecular aldol cyclization to provide a substituted tetrahydrofuran intermediate that undergoes an oxy-Cope rearrangement to provide functionalized nine-membered oxacycles with complete stereoselectivity.
Herein we describe our efforts to elucidate the key mechanistic aspects of the previously reported enantioselective photochemical α-alkylation of aldehydes with electron-poor organic halides. The chemistry exploits the potential of chiral enamines, key organocatalytic intermediates in thermal asymmetric processes, to directly participate in the photoexcitation of substrates either by forming a photoactive electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complex or by directly reaching an electronically excited state upon light absorption. These photochemical mechanisms generate radicals from closed-shell precursors under mild conditions. At the same time, the ground state chiral enamines provide effective stereochemical control over the enantioselective radical trapping process. We use a combination of conventional photophysical investigations, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and kinetic studies to gain a better understanding of the factors governing these enantioselective photochemical catalytic processes. Measurements of the quantum yield reveal that a radical chain mechanism is operative, while reaction-profile analysis and rate-order assessment indicate the trapping of the carbon-centered radical by the enamine, to form the carbon-carbon bond, as rate-determining. Our kinetic studies unveil the existence of a delicate interplay between the light-triggered initiation step and the radical chain propagation manifold, both mediated by the chiral enamines.