SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Alcohol abuse

59

Chronic alcoholics who also binge drink (i.e., acute on chronic) are prone to an exacerbated liver injury but its mechanism is not understood. We therefore investigated the in vivo effects of chronic and binge ethanol ingestion and compared to chronic ethanol followed by three repeat binge ethanol on the liver of male C57/BL6 mice fed ethanol in liquid diet (4%) for four weeks followed by binge ethanol (intragastric administration, 3.5 g/kg body weight, three doses, 12h apart). Chronic followed by binge ethanol exacerbated fat accumulation, necrosis, decrease in hepatic SAM and SAM:SAH ratio, increase in adenosine levels, and elevated CYP2E1 levels. Histone H3 lysine acetylation (H3AcK9), dually modified phosphoacetylated histone H3 (H3AcK9/PS10), and phosphorylated H2AX increased after binge whereas phosphorylation of histone H3 ser 10 (H3S10) and H3 ser 28 (H3S28) increased after chronic ethanol-binge. Histone H3 lysine 4 and 9 dimethylation increased with a marked dimethylation in H3K9 in chronic ethanol binge group. Trimethylated histone H3 levels did not change. Nuclear levels of histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and histone deacetylase HDAC3 were elevated whereas phospho-CREB decreased in a distinctive manner. Taken together, acute on chronic ethanol ingestion caused amplification of liver injury and elicited characteristic profiles of histone modifications, metabolic alterations, and changes in nuclear protein levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure renders liver more susceptible to repeat acute/binge ethanol induced acceleration of alcoholic liver disease.

Concepts: Protein, Histone, Histone deacetylase, Alcoholism, Posttranslational modification, Nucleosome, Alcohol abuse, Acetylation

54

Although debates over the efficacy of oral naltrexone and acamprosate in treating alcohol use disorders tend to focus on their global efficacy relative to placebo or their efficacy relative to each other, the underlying reality may be more nuanced. This meta-analysis examined when naltrexone and acamprosate are most helpful by testing: (i) the relative efficacy of each medication given its presumed mechanism of action (reducing heavy drinking versus fostering abstinence) and (ii) whether different ways of implementing each medication (required abstinence before treatment, detoxification before treatment, goal of treatment, length of treatment, dosage) moderate its effects.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Alcoholism, Addiction, Alcohol abuse, Delirium tremens, Naltrexone, Drinking culture

53

Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice. Treating mice with antifungal agents reduced intestinal fungal overgrowth, decreased β-glucan translocation, and ameliorated ethanol-induced liver disease. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that β-glucan induces liver inflammation via the C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC7A on Kupffer cells and possibly other bone marrow-derived cells. Subsequent increases in IL-1β expression and secretion contributed to hepatocyte damage and promoted development of ethanol-induced liver disease. We observed that alcohol-dependent patients displayed reduced intestinal fungal diversity and Candida overgrowth. Compared with healthy individuals and patients with non-alcohol-related cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis patients had increased systemic exposure and immune response to mycobiota. Moreover, the levels of extraintestinal exposure and immune response correlated with mortality. Thus, chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an altered mycobiota and translocation of fungal products. Manipulating the intestinal mycobiome might be an effective strategy for attenuating alcohol-related liver disease.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Cancer, Bacteria, Cirrhosis, Alcoholism, Alcohol abuse, Alcoholic liver disease

52

Studies have indicated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower incidence of diabetes in women. However, not only the amount but also the drinking pattern could be of importance when assessing the longitudinal relation between alcohol and glucose. Also, there is a lack of studies on alcohol use beginning in adolescence on adult glucose levels. The aim was to examine the association between total alcohol consumption and binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 and fasting plasma glucose at age 43.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Alcoholism, Blood sugar, Alcohol abuse, Wine, Beer, Drinking culture

50

Children who receive a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder may have a characteristic facial appearance in addition to neurodevelopmental impairment. It is not well understood whether there is a gradient of facial characteristics of children who did not receive a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder but who were exposed to a range of common drinking patterns during pregnancy.

Concepts: Alcohol, Pregnancy, Prenatal development, Fetus, Alcohol abuse, Mental retardation, Fetal alcohol syndrome

47

Alcohol is popular in Western culture, supported by a perception that modest intake is cardioprotective. However, excessive drinking has detrimental implications for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) following an alcohol binge or the “holiday heart syndrome” is well characterized. However, more modest levels of alcohol intake on a regular basis may also increase the risk of AF. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the relationship between alcohol and AF may include direct toxicity and alcohol’s contribution to obesity, sleep-disordered breathing, and hypertension. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiology and pathophysiology by which alcohol may be responsible for AF and determine whether alcohol abstinence is required for patients with AF.

Concepts: Disease, Heart, Atrial fibrillation, Alcoholism, Alcohol abuse, Drinking culture, Binge drinking, Holiday heart syndrome

46

A 63-year-old man with no history of alcohol abuse presented with sudden, severe epigastric pain. The serum lipase level was elevated, a finding consistent with acute pancreatitis. Despite supportive care with fluid hydration, pain medication, and bowel rest, the patient’s condition deteriorated.

Concepts: Patient, Alcoholism, Gastroenterology, Alcohol abuse, Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatitis

44

Alcohol hangover is a growing research area, but differences across the life span have not been assessed. Here, we test the hypothesis that the severity of hangovers depends on age.

Concepts: Alcoholism, Differences, Alcohol abuse, Alcoholic beverage, Vodka, Blood alcohol content, Drinking culture, Hangover

43

Alcoholism is frequently co-morbid with post-traumatic stress disorder, but it is unclear how alcohol affects the neural circuits mediating recovery from trauma. We found that chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) impaired fear extinction and remodeled the dendritic arbor of medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) neurons in mice. CIE impaired extinction encoding by infralimbic mPFC neurons in vivo and functionally downregulated burst-mediating NMDA GluN1 receptors. These findings suggest that alcohol may increase risk for trauma-related anxiety disorders by disrupting mPFC-mediated extinction of fear.

Concepts: Anxiety, Alcohol abuse, Mental disorder, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Anxiety disorder, Panic disorder, Hypervigilance

38

Excess ethanol consumption has serious pathologic consequences. In humans, repeated episodes of binge drinking can lead to liver damage and have adverse effects on other organs such as pancreas and brain. Long term chronic consumption of ethanol can also result in progressive alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple physiologic functions. FGF21 is a novel biomarker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans and limits hepatotoxicity in mice. Therefore, we explored the possibility that FGF21 plays a role in response to ethanol consumption in both humans and mice.

Concepts: Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Alcoholism, Hepatology, Fibroblast growth factor, Alcohol abuse, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Fatty liver