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Concept: Albrecht von Graefe


There are various developments and inventions from Germany that have influenced not only the domestic but also the international field of ophthalmology. Beginning with the invention of the ophthalmoscope by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1850, to the establishment of the “Archives of Ophthalmology” medical journal, a┬ápublication founded by Albrecht von Graefe in 1854, through to the development of the retinal chip by Eberhart Zrenner and colleagues with the first clinical data collected in 2007. The abovenamed and further developments and the German ophthalmologists behind these inventions are discussed in more detail.

Concepts: Visual perception, Ophthalmology, Wilhelm Wundt, Hermann von Helmholtz, Max Planck, Albrecht von Graefe, German ophthalmologists


Not only the scientific successes but also his personality caused Albrecht von Graefe (1828-1870) to gain a worldwide reputation. His two foundations “Archive for Ophthalmology” in 1854 and the “(German) Ophthalmological Society” (DOG) in 1857 as well as his famous eye clinic in Berlin were important for his colleagues and patients from many countries and most continents. The 2017 DOG congress has the motto “German Ophthalmology internationally”; thus, it is worthwhile to be reminded of this great ophthalmologist.

Concepts: Ophthalmology, Albrecht von Graefe