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Concept: Albert Einstein


Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands (n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction.

Concepts: Time, European Union, United States, Economics, Experiment, Canada, NATO, Albert Einstein


Upon his death in 1955, Albert Einstein’s brain was removed, fixed and photographed from multiple angles. It was then sectioned into 240 blocks, and histological slides were prepared. At the time, a roadmap was drawn that illustrates the location within the brain of each block and its associated slides. Here we describe the external gross neuroanatomy of Einstein’s entire cerebral cortex from 14 recently discovered photographs, most of which were taken from unconventional angles. Two of the photographs reveal sulcal patterns of the medial surfaces of the hemispheres, and another shows the neuroanatomy of the right (exposed) insula. Most of Einstein’s sulci are identified, and sulcal patterns in various parts of the brain are compared with those of 85 human brains that have been described in the literature. To the extent currently possible, unusual features of Einstein’s brain are tentatively interpreted in light of what is known about the evolution of higher cognitive processes in humans. As an aid to future investigators, these (and other) features are correlated with blocks on the roadmap (and therefore histological slides). Einstein’s brain has an extraordinary prefrontal cortex, which may have contributed to the neurological substrates for some of his remarkable cognitive abilities. The primary somatosensory and motor cortices near the regions that typically represent face and tongue are greatly expanded in the left hemisphere. Einstein’s parietal lobes are also unusual and may have provided some of the neurological underpinnings for his visuospatial and mathematical skills, as others have hypothesized. Einstein’s brain has typical frontal and occipital shape asymmetries (petalias) and grossly asymmetrical inferior and superior parietal lobules. Contrary to the literature, Einstein’s brain is not spherical, does not lack parietal opercula and has non-confluent Sylvian and inferior postcentral sulci.

Concepts: Brain, Human brain, Cognition, Cerebral cortex, Cerebrum, Frontal lobe, Premotor cortex, Albert Einstein


Long-distance entanglement distribution is essential for both foundational tests of quantum physics and scalable quantum networks. Owing to channel loss, however, the previously achieved distance was limited to ~100 kilometers. Here we demonstrate satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs to two locations separated by 1203 kilometers on Earth, through two satellite-to-ground downlinks with a summed length varying from 1600 to 2400 kilometers. We observed a survival of two-photon entanglement and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.37 ± 0.09 under strict Einstein locality conditions. The obtained effective link efficiency is orders of magnitude higher than that of the direct bidirectional transmission of the two photons through telecommunication fibers.

Concepts: Photon, Energy, Quantum mechanics, Physics, Albert Einstein, Quantum entanglement, Bell's theorem, EPR paradox


In general relativity, the picture of space-time assigns an ideal clock to each world line. Being ideal, gravitational effects due to these clocks are ignored and the flow of time according to one clock is not affected by the presence of clocks along nearby world lines. However, if time is defined operationally, as a pointer position of a physical clock that obeys the principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics, such a picture is, at most, a convenient fiction. Specifically, we show that the general relativistic mass-energy equivalence implies gravitational interaction between the clocks, whereas the quantum mechanical superposition of energy eigenstates leads to a nonfixed metric background. Based only on the assumption that both principles hold in this situation, we show that the clocks necessarily get entangled through time dilation effect, which eventually leads to a loss of coherence of a single clock. Hence, the time as measured by a single clock is not well defined. However, the general relativistic notion of time is recovered in the classical limit of clocks.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Fundamental physics concepts, Physics, General relativity, Classical mechanics, Special relativity, Albert Einstein, Quantum gravity


The superposition principle is fundamental to the quantum description of both light and matter. Recently, a number of experiments have sought to directly test this principle using coherent light, single photons, and nuclear spin states. We extend these experiments to massive particles for the first time. We compare the interference patterns arising from a beam of large dye molecules diffracting at single, double, and triple slit material masks to place limits on any high-order, or multipath, contributions. We observe an upper bound of less than one particle in a hundred deviating from the expectations of quantum mechanics over a broad range of transverse momenta and de Broglie wavelength.

Concepts: Electron, Photon, Quantum mechanics, Physics, Matter, Particle physics, Wave, Albert Einstein


Femtosecond resolution electron scattering techniques are applied to resolve the first atomic-scale steps following absorption of a photon in the prototypical hybrid perovskite methylammonium lead iodide. Following above-gap photoexcitation, we directly resolve the transfer of energy from hot carriers to the lattice by recording changes in the mean square atomic displacements on 10-ps time scales. Measurements of the time-dependent pair distribution function show an unexpected broadening of the iodine-iodine correlation function while preserving the Pb-I distance. This indicates the formation of a rotationally disordered halide octahedral structure developing on picosecond time scales. This work shows the important role of light-induced structural deformations within the inorganic sublattice in elucidating the unique optoelectronic functionality exhibited by hybrid perovskites and provides new understanding of hot carrier-lattice interactions, which fundamentally determine solar cell efficiencies.

Concepts: Electron, Photon, Photoelectric effect, Solar cell, Absorption, Compton scattering, Albert Einstein, Lead(II) nitrate


Few previous studies have investigated consumption distributions of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations despite recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, World Health Organization, Barack Obama, Humid subtropical climate, Albert Einstein


Coupling a microscopic mechanical resonator to a nanoscale quantum system enables control of the mechanical resonator via the quantum system and vice-versa. The coupling is usually achieved through functionalization of the mechanical resonator, but this results in additional mass and dissipation channels. An alternative is an intrinsic coupling based on strain. Here we employ a monolithic semiconductor system: the nanoscale quantum system is a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) located inside a nanowire. We demonstrate the resonant optical driving of the QD transition in such a structure. The noise spectrum of the resonance fluorescence signal, recorded in the single-photon counting regime, reveals a coupling to mechanical modes of different types. We measure a sensitivity to displacement of 65 fm/[Formula: see text] limited by charge noise in the device. Finally, we use thermal excitation of the different modes to determine the location of the QD within the trumpet, and calculate the contribution of the Brownian motion to the dephasing of the emitter.Resonant driving of a nanoscale quantum system coupled to a microscopic mechanical resonator may have uses in precision sensing and quantum information. The authors realize this by tailoring the geometry of a semiconductor nanowire embedding a quantum dot, detecting sub-picometre displacements.

Concepts: Electron, Photon, Quantum mechanics, Resonator, Wave, Resonance, Harmonic oscillator, Albert Einstein


Transmitting quantum information between two remote parties is a requirement for many quantum applications; however, direct transmission of states is often impossible because of noise and loss in the communication channel. Entanglement-enhanced state communication can be used to avoid this issue, but current techniques require extensive experimental resources to transmit large quantum states deterministically. To reduce these resource requirements, we use photon pairs hyperentangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum to implement superdense teleportation, which can communicate a specific class of single-photon ququarts. We achieve an average fidelity of 87.0(1)%, almost twice the classical limit of 44% with reduced experimental resources than traditional techniques. We conclude by discussing the information content of this constrained set of states and demonstrate that this set has an exponentially larger state space volume than the lower-dimensional general states with the same number of state parameters.

Concepts: Photon, Quantum mechanics, Angular momentum, Fundamental physics concepts, Spin, Quantum field theory, Radio, Albert Einstein


Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Barack Obama, Humid subtropical climate, Unemployment, Albert Einstein