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Concept: Alan Price

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This study aimed to characterize the sociodemographic profile of animal hoarders in a southern city of Brazil. In addition, it aimed to propose Animal Hoarding Disorder as a new nosological category, distinct from Hoarding Disorder. Thirty-three individuals with Animal Hoarding Disorder, 73% female and 60% elderly, composed the sample. The average age of the sample was 61.39 years (SD = 12.69) and the average period that individuals hoarded or lived with a large number of animals was 23.09 years (SD = 15.98.) It was observed that 56.7% of the sample hoarded other inanimate objects, besides the animals. The total number of hoarded animals was 1.357 and the average number of animals per hoarder was approximately 41 (SD = 24.41). Significant differences between hoarding disorder and animal hoarding are discussed. Unlike hoarded objects, hoarded animals generally do not obstruct domicile environments. The processes of disengaging from or donating animals also differ from those of object hoarding, since there is an affectional bond with lives and not with unanimated objects. In this sense, the characterization of Animal Hoarding Disorder as a new mental disorder may arouse great interest from both clinical professionals and researchers.

Concepts: The Animals, Compulsive hoarding, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Eric Burdon, Animals, Alan Price, We Gotta Get out of This Place, Animal hoarding

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Although the use of pet robots in senior living facilities and day-care centres, particularly for individuals suffering from dementia, has been intensively researched, the question of introducing pet robots into domestic settings has been relatively neglected. Ambient assisted living (AAL) offers many interface opportunities for integrating motorised companions. There are diverse medical reasons, as well as arguments from animal ethics, that support the use of pet robots in contrast to living with live animals. However, as this paper makes clear, we should not lose sight of the option of living with animals at home for as long as possible and in conformity with the welfare of the animal assisted by AAL technology.

Concepts: The Animals, Geriatrics, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Eric Burdon, Alan Price, Aging in place, We Gotta Get out of This Place

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The Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines were published in 2010 with the aim of improving the quality of studies involving animals. However, how well Chinese studies involving animal neoplasms adhere to these guidelines has not been assessed.

Concepts: The Animals, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Eric Burdon, Alan Price, We Gotta Get out of This Place

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Ethical and effective oversight of the use of wildlife species in research and education requires consideration of issues and methods not relevant to work with traditional laboratory or domesticated animals, just as the effective oversight of biomedical research requires consideration of issues and methods not germane to wildlife research. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees or other institutional review committees can meet their responsibilities in these disparate types of animal activities only by using resources tailored to the animals and situations encountered. Here we review the issues and the resources that facilitate effective oversight of such activities in the wildlife research arena available to researchers, institutional review committees, regulatory bodies, and accrediting bodies. Issues covered include an understanding of the fundamental differences between wildlife research and biomedical research; the profound differences between wildlife species and traditional laboratory subjects, most of which are domesticated animals; and the unique issues presented when the research subjects are members of wild populations and communities. We review the resources available for effective oversight of wildlife projects and emphasize that competent oversight of wildlife research demands the use of appropriate resources. These resources include guidelines designed for the use of wild species (taxon-specific guidelines) and protocol forms tailored for the species and situations encountered.

Concepts: The Animals, Medical research, Domestication, Wildlife, Wildness, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Eric Burdon, Alan Price

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Animal welfare on the day of slaughter is of increasing concern to the authorities and consumers alike, creating a need not only to optimize the welfare of the animals but also to document the level of welfare. The day of slaughter is composed of a variety of stages, initiated when the pigs leave the home pen and including pick-up facilities, transport, lairage, stunning and sticking. At each of these stages, the animals are exposed to different stressors that, both individually and in interaction with one another, can compromise welfare. As part of the initial work aiming to document the welfare of finishing pigs on the day of slaughter, this paper provides an overview of the individual stages including a discussion of potential stressors and potential welfare measurements. These measurements are discussed with regard to their relevance and suitability for documentation of animal welfare on the day of slaughter for development of on-site tools for continuous automatic monitoring of animal welfare.

Concepts: The Animals, R.E.M., Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Eric Burdon, Alan Price

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Ethics on animal use in science in Western society is based on utilitarianism, weighing the harms and benefits to the animals involved against those of the intended human beneficiaries. The 3Rs concept (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) is both a robust framework for minimizing animal use and suffering (addressing the harms to animals) and a means of supporting high quality science and translation (addressing the benefits). The ambiguity of basic research performed early in the research continuum can sometimes make harm-benefit analysis more difficult since anticipated benefit is often an incremental contribution to a field of knowledge. On the other hand, benefit is much more evident in translational research aimed at developing treatments for direct application in humans or animals suffering from disease. Though benefit may be easier to define, it should certainly not be considered automatic. Issues related to model validity seriously compromise experiments and have been implicated as a major impediment in translation, especially in complex disease models where harms to animals can be intensified. Increased investment and activity in the 3Rs is delivering new research models, tools and approaches with reduced reliance on animal use, improved animal welfare, and improved scientific and predictive value.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Scientific method, Science, Research, The Animals, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Eric Burdon, Alan Price

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Animal welfare is an important pillar of sustainability in meat production and is associated with other aspects of this concept, such as animal health, productivity, food safety, food quality and efficiency from a cost of production perspective. These interactions are present at all stages of the production cycle, from the beginning of the animals' farm life until their slaughter. On farm, some of the main welfare issues are related to neonatal mortality and low level of sensory input, which are likely to engender stereotypes and injurious behaviours, such as tail-biting. Pre-slaughter handling refers to the interaction between humans and animals prior to and during transport and at slaughter. Strategies to reduce pre-slaughter stress will benefit carcass and meat quality, being the training of stockpeople one of the most cost-effective policies to improve animal welfare. These strategies include also the implementation of standard monitoring procedures to detect signs of consciousness after stunning, before sticking and during bleeding until death occurs.

Concepts: Death, The Animals, Meat, Pork, Food safety, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Eric Burdon, Alan Price

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The Morris Water Maze is a widely used task in studies of spatial learning with rodents. Classical performance measures of animals in the Morris Water Maze include the escape latency, and the cumulative distance to the platform. Other methods focus on classifying trajectory patterns to stereotypical classes representing different animal strategies. However, these approaches typically consider trajectories as a whole, and as a consequence they assign one full trajectory to one class, whereas animals often switch between these strategies, and their corresponding classes, within a single trial. To this end, we take a different approach: we look for segments of diverse animal behaviour within one trial and employ a semi-automated classification method for identifying the various strategies exhibited by the animals within a trial. Our method allows us to reveal significant and systematic differences in the exploration strategies of two animal groups (stressed, non-stressed), that would be unobserved by earlier methods.

Concepts: The Animals, Force, Java, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Eric Burdon, Alan Price, We Gotta Get out of This Place

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Small animal models are used extensively in basic research because of their low cost and possibility to mimic several human pathologies. These models are used to either analyze the underlying mechanisms and/or assess therapeutic approaches. In this respect, gentle and safe artificial ventilation is mandatory, especially for prolonged experimental procedures that require the survival of the animals. The aim of the present paper was to develop and validate a high-performance anesthesia ventilator for small animals.

Concepts: Research, The Animals, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Eric Burdon, Alan Price, We Gotta Get out of This Place

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Pre-clinical behavioral pharmacology studies supporting indications like analgesia typically consist of at least three different studies; dose-finding, duration of effect, and tolerance-development studies. Pharmacokinetic (PK) plasma samples are generally taken from a parallel group of animals to avoid disruption of the behavioral pharmacodynamic (PD) endpoint. Our objective was to investigate if pre-clinical behavioral pharmacology studies in rats could be performed effectively by combining three studies into a single experimental design and using sparse PK sampling in the same animals as for PD. A refined dosing strategy was applied for a muscarinic agonist, AZD6088, using the rat spinal nerve ligation heat hyperalgesia model. PD measurements were performed on day 1, 3, 5 and 8. Two PK samples per day were taken day 2 and 4. In a separate control group, PD measurements were performed on rats without PK sampling. Data was analyzed using a population approach in NONMEM. The animals produced a consistent and reproducible response irrespective of day of testing suggesting that blood sampling on alternate days did not interfere with the PD responses. A direct concentration-effect relationship with good precision was established and no tolerance development was observed. The new design combining three studies into one and eliminating a satellite PK group realized substantial savings compared to the old design; animal use was reduced by 58% and time required to generate results was reduced by 55%. The design described here delivers substantial savings in animal lives, time, and money whilst still delivering a good quality and precise description of the PKPD relationship.

Concepts: Scientific method, Pharmacology, Animal, The Animals, Rat, Pharmacokinetics, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Alan Price