SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Al-Andalus

169

Lipomas are common benign tumours of fat cells. In most cases, surgical excision is curative and simple to perform; however, such a procedure requires general anaesthesia and may be associated with delayed wound healing, seroma formation and nerve injury in deep and intramuscular tumours. The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment of subcutaneous, subfascial or intermuscular lipomas using intralesional steroid injections in dogs. Fifteen dogs presenting with lipomas were selected for treatment with ultrasound-guided intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide at a dose of 40 mg/mL. Nine subcutaneous and subfascial tumours showed a complete regression. The other lipomas decreased in diameter, achieving, in some cases, remission of discomfort and regression of lameness. Steroid injection was a relatively safe and effective treatment for lipomas in dogs; only six dogs experienced polyuria/polydipsia for about 2 weeks post-treatment.

Concepts: Wound healing, Surgery, Benign tumor, Anesthesia, Injury, Al-Andalus, Excision, Triamcinolone acetonide

169

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic thyroidectomy is a well-established surgical technique. We have been utilizing precordial video-assisted neck surgery (VANS) with a gasless anterior neck skin lifting method. Recently, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has generated excitement among surgeons as potentially scar-free surgery. We developed an innovative gasless transoral technique for endoscopic thyroidectomy that incorporated the concept of NOTES in a VANS-technique. METHODS: Incision was made at the vestibulum under the inferior lip. From the vestibulum to the anterior cervical region, a subplatysmal tunnel in front of the mandible was created and cervical skin was lifted by Kirschner wires and a mechanical retracting system. This method without CO(2) insufflation created an effective working space and provided an excellent cranio-caudal view so that we could perform thyroidectomy and central node dissection safely. RESULTS: Beginning with our first clinical application of TOVANS in September 2009, we have performed eight such procedures. Three of the eight patients had papillary microcarcinoma and received central node dissection after thyroidectomy. All patients began oral intake 1 day after surgery. The sensory disorder around the chin persisted more than 6 months after surgery in all patients. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy revealed in one patient. Nobody had mental nerve palsy, and no infection developed with use of preventive antibacterial tablets for 3 days. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a new method for gasless transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy with a premandible approach and anterior neck-skin lifting. TOVANS makes possible complete endoscopic radical lymphadenectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. We believe that this method is innovative and progressive and has not only a cosmetic advantage but also provides easy access to the central node compartment for dissection in endoscopic thyroid cancer surgery.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Al-Andalus, Antiseptic, Surgeon, Thyroidectomy, Surgical oncology

159

The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period.

Concepts: North Africa, Iberian Peninsula, Al-Andalus, Spain, Islam, Italy, Archaeology, 1st millennium

156

Oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion (OLLIF) is a minimally invasive lumbar surgery. Differences in resource consumption between open spinal surgeries, transformational lumbar interbody fusions (TLIF) and OLLIF, are not documented. We monetize quantifiable differences in resource utilization between the two procedures. A retrospective review of 124 surgeries was performed (OLLIF=69, TLIF=55). Standard conversion factors were used and values reported based on the levels (1-4) addressed at surgery. One level surgery time (OLLIF 62.9 vs. TLIF 134.9 minutes) and surgical expense (OLLIF $5,253 vs. TLIF $11,264) were reduced in the OLLIF population. Inpatient costs (OLLIF $5,712 vs. TLIF $9,271) and length of stay (LOS) were also reduced (OLLIF 2.6 vs. TLIF 4.2 days). Per case, reduced resource consumption suggests lower total hospital costs. Reduced surgical time and LOS can result in greater patient throughput per operating room and patient bed for OLLIF patients in hospitals that have resourced constrained environments.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Anesthesia, Al-Andalus, Operating theater

153

BACKROUND: surgical procedure and postoperative bed rest lead to musculoskeletal system alterations with a possibility of new walking dependence of patients who undergo cardio–thoracic surgery, which is sometimes associated with prolonged hospitalization and arised health expenditure.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Anesthesia, Al-Andalus, Cardiothoracic surgery, Thoracic surgery

148

Vestibular schwannoma is the most frequent cerebellopontine angle tumor. The aim of our study is to reflect our experience in the surgical treatment of this tumor MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 420 vestibular schwannomas operated in our hospital between 1994-2014. We include tumor size, preoperative hearing, surgical approaches, definitive facial and hearing functional results, and complications due to surgery.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Al-Andalus, Neurosurgery, Vestibular schwannoma, Schwannoma

38

Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an international study designed to assess outcomes after non-cardiac surgery in Europe.

Concepts: Health care, Cohort study, Medicine, Clinical trial, Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Al-Andalus

31

As global initiatives increase patient access to surgical treatments, there remains a need to understand the adverse effects of surgery and define appropriate levels of perioperative care.

Concepts: Surgery, Islamic Golden Age, Al-Andalus, Elective surgery

28

The premasseter space is a recognized, sub-superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) soft-tissue space overlying the lower masseter immediately anterior to the parotid. The performance, safety, and effectiveness of composite face lifts are enhanced when the space is used. This has drawn attention to the need for better understanding of the premasseter anatomy above the space.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Physician, Al-Andalus, Plastic surgery, Reconstructive surgery, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Rhytidectomy

28

To assess the outcomes and safety of current surgical options and adjuvants in the treatment of primary and recurrent pterygium.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Anesthesia, Al-Andalus, Ophthalmology