Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Agent


The fair division of a surplus is one of the most widely examined problems. This paper focuses on bargaining problems with fixed disagreement payoffs where risk-neutral agents have reached an agreement that is the Nash-bargaining solution (NBS). We consider a stochastic environment, in which the overall return consists of multiple pies with uncertain sizes and we examine how these pies can be allocated with fairness among agents. Specifically, fairness is based on the Aristotle’s maxim: “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally, in proportion to the relevant inequality”. In this context, fairness is achieved when all the individual stochastic surplus shares which are allocated to agents are distributed in proportion to the NBS. We introduce a novel algorithm, which can be used to compute the ratio of each pie that should be allocated to each agent, in order to ensure fairness within a symmetric or asymmetric NBS.

Concepts: Game theory, Ratio, Agent, Ratio distribution, Nash bargaining game, Bargaining, Pie, Cooperative games


Calcium hydroxide has been used extensively in dentistry for a century. Despite its widespread use as a pulp-capping agent, its mechanisms of action still remain ambiguous. Understanding its modes of action will lead to a broader understanding of the mechanisms associated with induced dentinogenesis and help in optimizing the currently available agents to target specific regenerative processes to obtain the best possible clinical outcomes. A literature search relating to mechanisms of dentinogenesis of calcium hydroxide up to December 2011 was carried out using pubmed and MEDLINE database searches as well as manual searching of cross-references from identified studies. Resulting suggestions regarding dentinogenic mechanisms of calcium hydroxide range from direct irritating action of the material to induction of release of biologically active molecules. The purpose of this article is to discuss various mechanisms through which calcium hydroxide may induce tertiary dentinogenesis in the light of observations made in included studies.

Concepts: Chemistry, Search engine optimization, Agent, Searching, Calcium hydroxide


Long lasting anticorrosive coatings for steel have been developed based on halloysite nanotubes loaded with three corrosion inhibitors: benzotriazole, mercaptobenzothiazole and mercaptobenzimidazole. The inhibitors' loaded tubes were admixed at 5-10 wt % to oil based alkyd paint providing sustained agent release and corrosion healing in the coating defects. Slow 20-30 hour release of the inhibitors in defect points caused remarkable improvement in anticorrosion efficiency of the coatings. Further time expansion of anticorrosion agents release has been achieved by formation of release stoppers at nanotube-ends with urea-formaldehyde copolymer and copper-inhibitor complexation. Corrosion protection efficiency was tested on ASTM A366 steel plates in 0.5 M NaCl solution with microscanning of corrosion current development, by microscopy inspection and studying paint adhesion. The best protection was found using halloysite / mercaptobenzimidazole and benzotriazole inhibitors. Stopper formation with urea-formaldehyde copolymer provided additional increase in corrosion efficiency due to longer release of inhibitors.

Concepts: Sodium chloride, Coating, Agent, Coatings, Passivation, Corrosion, Paint, Formulations


We offer and test a simple operationalization of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (“happiness”) as mediating variables that link outcomes to motivation. In six evolutionary agent-based simulation experiments, we compared the relative performance of agents endowed with different combinations of happiness-related traits (parameter values), under four types of environmental conditions. We found (i) that the effects of attaching more weight to longer-term than to momentary happiness and of extending the memory for past happiness are both stronger in an environment where food is scarce; (ii) that in such an environment “relative consumption,” in which the agent’s well-being is negatively affected by that of its neighbors, is more detrimental to survival when food is scarce; and (iii) that having a positive outlook, under which agents' longer-term happiness is increased by positive events more than it is decreased by negative ones, is generally advantageous.

Concepts: Environment, Economics, Environmental science, Parameter, Agent, Happiness, Positive mental attitude


In this study, chitosan and nano-chitosan were used as flocculants agents for harvesting microalga Nannochloropsis sp. chitosan was modified to nano-chitosan by crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate. The effects of type and dosage of flocculants and the pH of the culture were investigated on biomass recovery. Optimum dosages for both bio-flocculants were found. The results showed that the dosage of flocculant consumption decreases by 40% and biomass recovery increases by 9% when nano-chitosan instead of chitosan is used as flocculant agent. Also, the recycled water from the harvesting process was reused which increases the growth of microalgae by about 7%. Finally, the cost analysis of harvesting process showed the feasibility of using nano-chitosan as flocculation agent.

Concepts: Algae, Dose, Emulsion, Reuse, The Culture, Agent, Flocculation, Chitosan


This paper focuses on the novel motivated learning (ML) scheme and opportunistic behavior of an intelligent agent. It extends previously developed ML to opportunistic behavior in a multitask situation. Our paper describes the virtual world implementation of autonomous opportunistic agents learning in a dynamically changing environment, creating abstract goals, and taking advantage of arising opportunities to improve their performance. An opportunistic agent achieves better results than an agent based on ML only. It does so by minimizing the average value of all need signals rather than a dominating need. This paper applies to the design of autonomous embodied systems (robots) learning in real-time how to operate in a complex environment.

Concepts: Psychology, Novel, Intelligence, Agent, Agent-based model, Intelligent agent, Multi-agent system, Software agent


Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been used widely for the treatment of poisoning due to local anesthetic agent and is increasingly reported as a therapy for other forms of poisoning. This article will review the proposed mechanisms of action for ILE in poisoning and the evidence from animal studies and human experience supporting the use of ILE for poisoning due to nonlocal anesthetic agents.

Concepts: Anesthesia, Local anesthesia, The Matrix, Local anesthetic, Agent, Lipid rescue


Hormesis is a biphasic dose response with specific quantitative features for the amplitude and width of the stimulation. It is highly generalizable and independent of biological model, endpoint, inducing agent, level of biological organization and mechanism. Hormesis may be induced via a direct stimulation or by overcompensation to a disruption of homeostasis. The induction of hormesis by low-level stressor agents not only rapidly upregulates adaptive processes to repair damage but also protects the adapted system from damage due to a subsequent challenging dose (toxic) within a definable temporal window. The striking consistency of the amplitude of hormetic response suggests that hormesis provides a quantitative description of biological plasticity. Knowledge of hormesis has particular potential biomedical significance with respect to slowing or retarding both normal aging processes and the progression of severe neurological diseases.

Concepts: Senescence, Neurology, Toxicology, Logic, Metaphysics, Mathematical logic, Agent, Hormesis


This paper considers communication in terms of inference about the behaviour of others (and our own behaviour). It is based on the premise that our sensations are largely generated by other agents like ourselves. This means, we are trying to infer how our sensations are caused by others, while they are trying to infer our behaviour: for example, in the dialogue between two speakers. We suggest that the infinite regress induced by modelling another agent - who is modelling you - can be finessed if you both possess the same model. In other words, the sensations caused by others and oneself are generated by the same process. This leads to a view of communication based upon a narrative that is shared by agents who are exchanging sensory signals. Crucially, this narrative transcends agency - and simply involves intermittently attending to and attenuating sensory input. Attending to sensations enables the shared narrative to predict the sensations generated by another (i.e. to listen), while attenuating sensory input enables one to articulate the narrative (i.e. to speak). This produces a reciprocal exchange of sensory signals that, formally, induces a generalised synchrony between internal (neuronal) brain states generating predictions in both agents. We develop the arguments behind this perspective, using an active (Bayesian) inference framework and offer some simulations (of birdsong) as proof of principle.

Concepts: Infinity, Logic, Statistical inference, Analogy, Agent, Inference, Theorem, Proof of concept


In the present research, we investigated how 13-month-olds use their emergent theory-of-mind understanding (i.e., understanding about other people’s mental states, such as their intentions, perceptions, and beliefs) and social-evaluation skills to make sense of social interactions. The infants watched three puppets (A, B, and C) interact. The results showed that after seeing Agents A and B interact in a positive manner, infants expected them to continue doing so, even after they saw B hit another agent, C, while A was absent. When A was present to witness B’s harmful action, however, infants expected A to change his or her behavior and ignore B. Therefore, infants seemed to consider A’s perspectives when predicting A’s actions. Furthermore, if B accidentally hit C when A was present, infants seemed to accept that A could interact or not interact with B, which suggests that they had taken into account B’s intention in their interpretations of the agents' interactions.

Concepts: Present, Psychology, Future, Sociology, Perception, Sense, Agent