SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: African Union

627

The prevalence of peanut allergy among children in Western countries has doubled in the past 10 years, and peanut allergy is becoming apparent in Africa and Asia. We evaluated strategies of peanut consumption and avoidance to determine which strategy is most effective in preventing the development of peanut allergy in infants at high risk for the allergy.

Concepts: Africa, Continent, Islam, Soviet Union, African Union, Strategy game, Human Development Index, Eastern world

168

BACKGROUND: Globally, there was an estimated number of 287,000 maternal deaths in 2010. Eighty five percent (245,000) of these deaths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Among the causes of these deaths were obstructed and prolonged labour which could be prevented by cost effective and affordable health interventions like the use of the partograph. The Use of the partograph is a well-known best practice for quality monitoring of labour and subsequent prevention of obstructed and prolonged labour. However, a number of cases of obstructed labour do happen in health facilities due to poor quality of intrapartum care. METHODS: A cross-sectional quantitative study assessed knowledge and utilization of partograph among obstetric care givers in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and use of partograph among obstetric care givers. RESULTS: Knowledge about the partograph was fair: 189 (96.6%) of all the respondents correctly mentioned at least one component of the partograph, 104 (53.3%) correctly explained the function of alert line and 161(82.6%) correctly explained the function of action line. The study showed that 112 (57.3%) of the obstetric care givers at public health institutions reportedly utilized partograph to monitor mothers in labour. The utilization of the partograph was significantly higher among obstetric care givers working in health centres (67.9%) compared to those working in hospitals (34.4%) [Adjusted OR = 3.63(95%CI: 1.81, 7.28)]. CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of obstetric care givers had fair knowledge of the partograph and why it is necessary to use it in the management of labour and over half of obstetric care givers reported use of the partograph to monitor mothers in labour. Pre-service and on-job training of obstetric care givers on the use of the partograph should be given emphasis. Mandatory health facility policy is also recommended to ensure safety of women in labour in public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Concepts: Health care, Scientific method, Logistic regression, Sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Obstetrics, African Union

168

The modest decline in child mortality in Africa raises the question whether the pattern of diseases associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in children in Nigeria has changed.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Death, Medical statistics, Demography, Actuarial science, African Union, Atlantic slave trade

103

Increasing population-levels of physical activity (PA) is a controversial strategy for managing the obesity epidemic, given the conflicting evidence for weight loss from PA alone per se. We measured PA and weight change in a three-year prospective cohort study in young adults from five countries (Ghana, South Africa, Jamaica, Seychelles and USA).

Concepts: Africa, Obesity, Physical exercise, Weight loss, African Union, English-speaking countries and territories, Members of the Commonwealth of Nations, Liberal democracies

72

The research objective was to test the hypothesis that corporate health and wellness contributed positively to South African companies' financial results.

Concepts: Human, Africa, Black people, South Africa, Overseas Chinese, African Union, Zimbabwe, 2003 Cricket World Cup

50

International trade of the invasive South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), a subclinical carrier of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatis (Bd) has been proposed as a major means of introduction of Bd into naïve, susceptible amphibian populations. The historical presence of Bd in the indigenous African population of Xenopus is well documented. However, there are no reports documenting the presence of Bd in wild Xenopus populations in the US, particularly in California where introduced populations are well-established after intentional or accidental release. In this report, a survey was conducted on 178 archived specimens of 6 species of Xenopus collected in Africa from 1871-2000 and on 23 archived specimens (all wild-caught Xenopus laevis) collected in California, USA between 2001 and 2010. The overall prevalence rate of Bd in the tested Xenopus was 2.8%. The earliest positive specimen was X. borealis collected in Kenya in 1934. The overall prevalence of Bd in the X. laevis collected in California was 13% with 2 positive specimens from 2001 and one positive specimen from 2003. The positive Xenopus (3/23) collected in California were collected in 2001 (2/3) and 2003 (1/3). These data document the presence of Bd-infected wild Xenopus laevis in California. The findings reported here support the prevailing hypothesis that Bd was present as a stable, endemic infection in Xenopus populations in Africa prior to their worldwide distribution likely via international live-amphibian trade.

Concepts: Biology, Africa, Frog, Model organisms, African Union, Pipidae, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, African clawed frog

38

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused predominantly by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by both Phlebotomus orientalis and Phlebotomus martini, is highly endemic in East Africa where approximately 30 thousands VL cases are reported annually. The largest numbers of cases are found in Sudan - where Phlebotomus orientalis proliferate in Acacia forests especially on Sudan’s eastern border with Ethiopia, followed by South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. Long-standing civil war and unrest is a dominant determinant of VL in East African countries. Here we attempt to identify the correlation between VL epidemics and civil unrest.

Concepts: Africa, Kenya, Sudan, East Africa, African Union

32

Shingai Machingaidze and colleagues reflect on the successes and shortfalls of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Africa, and the considerable challenges that must now be addressed to improve immunization systems.

Concepts: Africa, African Union, United States Army Africa

28

Skin-lightening products are commonly used by black communities in South Africa and worldwide. This practice has deep historical and cultural roots and is associated with adverse cutaneous effects.

Concepts: Africa, Black people, South Africa, White people, African American, Overseas Chinese, African Union, 2003 Cricket World Cup

28

To determine the frequency and content of food-related television (TV) advertisements shown on South African TV.

Concepts: Africa, Black people, South Africa, Overseas Chinese, Radio, African Union, Zimbabwe, 2003 Cricket World Cup