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Concept: Affirmative action


Interethnic conflicts often escalate rapidly. Why does the behavior of masses easily change from cooperation to aggression? This paper provides an experimental test of whether ethnic hostility is contagious. Using incentivized tasks, we measured willingness to sacrifice one’s own resources to harm others among adolescents from a region with a history of animosities toward the Roma people, the largest ethnic minority in Europe. To identify the influence of peers, subjects made choices after observing either destructive or peaceful behavior of peers in the same task. We found that susceptibility to follow destructive behavior more than doubled when harm was targeted against Roma rather than against coethnics. When peers were peaceful, subjects did not discriminate. We observed very similar patterns in a norms-elicitation experiment: destructive behavior toward Roma was not generally rated as more socially appropriate than when directed at coethnics, but the ratings were more sensitive to social contexts. The findings may illuminate why ethnic hostilities can spread quickly, even in societies with few visible signs of interethnic hatred.

Concepts: Sociology, Science, United Kingdom, Experiment, Hypothesis, Test method, Anger, Affirmative action


To examine the awareness and attitudes about the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act in individuals who made contact with a Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome advocacy group. This is a descriptive study of individuals (n = 1,699) who were invited via email and advertisements to complete an online questionnaire available from August 2009 through December 2010. Response distributions of relevant subgroups were compared using cross tabulation and Chi-squared tests were used. The majority of respondents (69.2 %) had undergone genetic testing (n = 1,156) and 30.2 % had not. Of those who did not undergo genetic testing, the most common reason given for declining testing was cost (28.8 %), followed by concerns about insurance discrimination (19.5 %). More than half (60.5 %) were worried about health insurance discrimination when they first considered genetic testing and 28.6 % were worried about employment discrimination. Slightly more individuals were worried about health insurance discrimination if they had no prior knowledge of GINA. While “cost” was cited most frequently as the reason not to test, “fear of insurance discrimination” was the second most common reason. Knowledge of GINA among consumers is still limited and public education may help promote reduction in fear.

Concepts: Genetics, Cancer, Discrimination, Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, Affirmative action, Education in the United States, Genetic discrimination, Redlining


The ability to discriminate between sets of items differing in quantity has shown a growing interest in comparative studies as a diversity of animal species exhibit such quantitative competence. Previous studies with angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) have demonstrated that this species is capable of spontaneously discriminating between fully visible groups (shoals) of conspecifics of different numerical size. In the present study, we investigated quantity discrimination in angelfish adopting a new procedure that we expected to make the task more difficult for the fish. During a pretest period, angelfish were allowed to fully see shoals of conspecifics of different numerical size, subsequently all fish but 1 in each stimulus shoal were hidden behind opaque barriers. Thus, during testing, experimental fish had to rely on their working memory, which implies a certain level of mental representation of the quantities or numbers discriminated. Angelfish chose the larger shoal with similar accuracy when 1 versus 2, 1 versus 3, 1 versus 4, 2 versus 3, and 2 versus 4 stimulus fish were contrasted, but failed to distinguish shoals when 3 versus 4, 4 versus 5, and 4 versus 6 fish were contrasted. Strong similarities were observed in relation with our previous procedure indicating the robustness of the quantity discrimination abilities of this species. Our results imply that angelfish form internal representations and demonstrate that these fish can make comparisons between small quantities of items while relying on their working memory alone. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Cichlid, Discrimination, Racial discrimination, Adultism, Affirmative action, Pterophyllum


Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is growing internationally, but little is known about black and minority ethnic (BME) involvement and the factors influencing their involvement in health and social care research.

Concepts: Health care, Sociology, United Kingdom, Race, Ethnic group, Minority group, Affirmative action


Transgender and gender non-conforming people frequently experience discrimination, harassment, and marginalization across college and university campuses (Bilodeau, 2007; Finger, 2010; Rankin, et al., 2010; Seelman et al., 2012). The minority stress model (Meyer, 2007) posits that experiences of discrimination often negatively impact the psychological well-being of minority groups. However, few scholars have examined whether college institutional climate factors-such as being denied access to bathrooms or gender-appropriate campus housing-are significantly associated with detrimental psychological outcomes for transgender people. Using the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, this study analyzes whether being denied access to these spaces is associated with lifetime suicide attempts, after controlling for interpersonal victimization by students or teachers. Findings from sequential logistic regression (N = 2,316) indicate that denial of access to either space had a significant relationship to suicidality, even after controlling for interpersonal victimization. This paper discusses implications for higher education professionals and researchers.

Concepts: Education, Gender, Sociology, University, Interpersonal relationship, Higher education, Suicide, Affirmative action


Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth.

Concepts: Human, Male, United States, Gender, Race, Human skin color, Racism, Affirmative action


Recent waves of immigration to Western nations have fueled a debate over the consequences of ethnic diversity for social cohesion. One prominent argument in this debate holds that diversity is detrimental to trust and cooperation because individuals in heterogeneous communities face difficulties in enforcing social norms across ethnic lines. We examine this proposition in a field experiment involving real-life interactions among residents of multiethnic German neighborhoods. We find significant ethnic asymmetries in the pattern of norm enforcement: Members of the majority “native” German population are more active in sanctioning norm violations, while ethnic minorities are more likely to find themselves the target of sanctions. We interpret these results in light of prevailing status inequalities between ethnic minorities and the native majority. We further calculate that, as a result of ethnic discrimination, social control is likely to rise in communities with moderate minority population shares.

Concepts: United States, Sociology, United Kingdom, Heteronormativity, Anomie, Affirmative action


This systematic review aimed to identify facilitators, barriers and strategies for engaging ‘hard to reach’ older people in research on health promotion; the oldest old (≥80 years), older people from black and minority ethnic groups (BME) and older people living in deprived areas.

Concepts: Middle age, Sociology, United Kingdom, Old age, Race, Ethnic group, Minority group, Affirmative action


The number of racial/ethnic minority children will exceed the number of white children in the USA by 2018. Although 38% of Americans are minorities, only 12% of pediatricians, 5% of medical-school faculty, and 3% of medical-school professors are minorities. Furthermore, only 5% of all R01 applications for National Institutes of Health grants are from African-American, Latino, and American Indian investigators. Prompted by the persistent lack of diversity in the pediatric and biomedical research workforces, the Academic Pediatric Association Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) was initiated in 2012. RAPID targets applicants who are members of an underrepresented minority group (URM), disabled, or from a socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged background. The program, which consists of both a research project and career and leadership development activities, includes an annual career-development and leadership conference which is open to any resident, fellow, or junior faculty member from an URM, disabled, or disadvantaged background who is interested in a career in academic general pediatrics.

Concepts: Medicine, United States, Sociology, Physician, Pediatrics, Medical school, Minority group, Affirmative action


BackgroundCommunication may be an influential determinant of inequality of access to, engagement with and benefit from psychiatric services.AimsTo review the evidence on interventions designed to improve therapeutic communications between Black and minority ethnic patients and clinicians who provide care in psychiatric services.MethodSystematic review and evidence synthesis (PROSPERO registration: CRD42011001661). Data sources included the published and the ‘grey’ literature. A survey of experts and a consultation with patients and carers all contributed to the evidence synthesis, interpretation and recommendations.ResultsTwenty-one studies were included in our analysis. The trials showed benefits mainly for depressive symptoms, experiences of care, knowledge, stigma, adherence to prescribed medication, insight and alliance. The effect sizes were smaller for better-quality trials (range of d 0.18-0.75) than for moderate- or lower-quality studies (range of d 0.18-4.3). The review found only two studies offering weak economic evidence.ConclusionsCulturally adapted psychotherapies, and ethnographic and motivational assessment leading to psychotherapies were effective and favoured by patients and carers. Further trials are needed from outside of the UK and USA, as are economic evaluations and studies of routine psychiatric care practices.

Concepts: Medicine, Evaluation, Effectiveness, Sociology, United Kingdom, Effect size, Meta-analysis, Affirmative action