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Concept: Aerobic exercise


BACKGROUND: This study compared the effects of ingesting water (W), a flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) or a flavored non-caloric electrolyte (NCE) beverage on mood, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and sprint power during cycling in recreational exercisers. METHODS: Men (n = 23) and women (n = 13) consumed a 24-h standardized diet and reported 2–4 h post-prandial for all test sessions. After a familiarization session, participants completed 50 min of stationary cycling in a warm environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.0[degree sign]C) at ~60-65% of heart rate reserve (146 +/- 4 bpm) interspersed with 5 rest periods of 2 min each. During exercise, participants consumed W, CE, or NCE, served in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Beverage volume was served in 3 aliquots equaling each individual’s sweat losses (mean 847 +/- 368 mL) during the familiarization session. Profiles of Mood States questionnaires (POMS) were administered and blood glucose levels were determined pre- and post- sub-maximal cycling. Following sub-maximal exercise, participants completed 3 30-s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT) with 2.5 min rest between tests to assess performance. RESULTS: Blood glucose was higher (p < 0.05) after 50 min of submaximal cycling just prior to the WAnT for CE (6.1 +/- 1.7 mmol/L) compared to W (4.9 +/- 1.5 mmol/L) and NCE (4.6 +/- 1.2 mmol/L). Nonetheless, there were no differences among treatments in peak (642 +/- 153, 635 +/- 143, 650 +/- 141 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p = 0.44) or mean (455 +/- 100, 458 +/- 95, 454 +/- 95 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p = 0.62) power for the first WAnT or mean (414 +/- 92, 425 +/- 85, 423 +/- 82 watts, respectively; p = 0.13) power output averaged across all 3 WAnT. Likewise, RPE during submaximal exercise, session RPE, and fatigue and vigor assessed by POMS did not differ among beverage treatments (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Carbohydrate ingestion consumed by recreational exercisers during a 1-h, moderate-intensity aerobic workout did not alter mood or perceived exertion, nor did it affect subsequent anaerobic performance under the conditions of this study. Drinking caloric sport beverages does not benefit recreational exercisers in a non-fasted state.

Concepts: Exercise, Blood sugar, Cycling, Carbohydrate, Self number, Aerobic exercise, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, 496


The purpose this study was to examine the effects of caffeine ingestion on performance and energy expenditure (anaerobic and aerobic contribution) during a 4-km cycling time trial (TT) performed after a carbohydrate (CHO) availability-lowering exercise protocol. After preliminary and familiarization trials, seven amateur cyclists performed three 4-km cycling TT in a double-blind, randomized and crossover design. The trials were performed either after no previous exercise (CON), or after a CHO availability-lowering exercise protocol (DEP) performed in the previous evening, followed by either placebo (DEP-PLA) or 5 of caffeine intake (DEP-CAF) 1 hour before the trial. Performance was reduced (-2.1%) in DEP-PLA vs CON (421.0±12.3 vs 412.4±9.7 s). However, performance was restored in DEP-CAF (404.6±17.1 s) compared with DEP-PLA, while no differences were found between DEP-CAF and CON. The anaerobic contribution was increased in DEP-CAF compared with both DEP-PLA and CON (67.4±14.91, 47. 3±14.6 and 55.3±14.0 W, respectively), and this was more pronounced in the first 3 km of the trial. Similarly, total anaerobic work was higher in DEP-CAF than in the other conditions. The integrated electromyographic activity, plasma lactate concentration, oxygen uptake, aerobic contribution and total aerobic work were not different between the conditions. The reduction in performance associated with low CHO availability is reversed with caffeine ingestion due to a higher anaerobic contribution, suggesting that caffeine could access an anaerobic “reserve” that is not used under normal conditions.

Concepts: Oxygen, Cellular respiration, Cycling, Caffeine, The Trial, Aerobic exercise, Anaerobic exercise, Individual time trial


Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate) and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2)) consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r =  -0.12) and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11), openness (r = 0.13), and conscientiousness (r = 0.09) had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.

Concepts: Metabolism, Energy, Mass, Exercise physiology, Aerobic exercise, Big Five personality traits, Basal metabolic rate, Thermic effect of food


Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW).

Concepts: Activity, Aerobic exercise


Tracy, BL and Hart, CEF. Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults. J Strength Cond Res 27(3): 822-830, 2013-There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Exercise, Strength training, Aerobic exercise, VO2 max, Physical fitness, Bodybuilding, Bikram Yoga


Exercise interventions in individuals with Parkinson’s disease incorporate goal-based motor skill training to engage cognitive circuitry important in motor learning. With this exercise approach, physical therapy helps with learning through instruction and feedback (reinforcement) and encouragement to perform beyond self-perceived capability. Individuals with Parkinson’s disease become more cognitively engaged with the practice and learning of movements and skills that were previously automatic and unconscious. Aerobic exercise, regarded as important for improvement of blood flow and facilitation of neuroplasticity in elderly people, might also have a role in improvement of behavioural function in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Exercises that incorporate goal-based training and aerobic activity have the potential to improve both cognitive and automatic components of motor control in individuals with mild to moderate disease through experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Basic research in animal models of Parkinson’s disease is beginning to show exercise-induced neuroplastic effects at the level of synaptic connections and circuits.

Concepts: Motor control, Skill, Strength training, Motor skill, Aerobic exercise, Motor skills


PURPOSE: To examine the effects of three different frequencies of combined resistance and aerobic training on total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) in a group of older adults. METHODS: Seventy-two women, 60 - 74 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 day/week of aerobic and 1 day/week of resistance (1+1); 2 days/week of aerobic and 2 days/week resistance (2+2); or 3 days/week aerobic and 3 days/week resistance (3+3). Body composition (DXA), feeling of fatigue, depression, and vigor (questionnaire), strength (1RM), serum cytokines (ELISA), maximal oxygen uptake (progressive treadmill test), resting energy expenditure, and TEE were measured before and after 16 weeks of training. Aerobic training consisted of 40 minutes of aerobic exercise at 80% maximum heart rate and resistance training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions for 10 different exercises at 80% of one repetition maximum. RESULTS: All groups increased fat free mass, strength and aerobic fitness and decreased fat mass. No changes were observed in cytokines or perceptions of fatigue/depression. No time by group interaction was found for any fitness/body composition variable. TEE and AEE increased with the 2+2 group but not with the other two groups. Nonexercise training AEE (NEAT) increased significantly in the 2+2 group (+200 kcal/day), group 1x1 showed a trend for an increase (+68 kcal/day) and group 3+3 decreased significantly (-150 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that 3+3 training may inhibit NEAT by being too time consuming and does not induce superior training adaptations to 1+1 and 2+2 training.

Concepts: Exercise, Mass, Strength training, Weight training, Exercise physiology, Aerobic exercise, Basal metabolic rate, Cooper test


Running economy (RE) has been seen to improve with concurrent strength and endurance training in young and elite endurance athletes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 2 different strength training protocols on RE and strength parameters in a group of regularly training master marathon runners. Sixteen participants were randomly assigned to a maximal strength training program (MST; n = 6; 44.2 ± 3.9 yrs), a resistance training (RT; n = 5; 44.8 ± 4.4 yrs) and a control group (CG; n = 5; 43.2 ± 7.9 yrs). Before and after the experimental period, resting metabolic rate, body composition, 1 repetition maximum, squat jump, countermovement jump and RE were evaluated. The MST group showed significant increases (p < 0.05) in 1RM (+16.34%) and RE (+6.17 %) at marathon pace. No differences emerged for the other groups (p > 0.05). Anthropometric data were unchanged after the training intervention (p > 0.05). Taken together, the results of this preliminary study indicate that master endurance athletes seem to benefit from concurrent strength and endurance training because the rate of force development may be crucial for RE improvement, one of the major determinants of endurance performance.

Concepts: Metabolism, Energy, Exercise, Strength training, Weight training, Aerobic exercise, Basal metabolic rate, Isometric exercise


The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists during a 12-week preparation period. One group of cyclists performed block periodization (BP; n = 8), wherein every fourth week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one HIT session. Another group performed a more traditional organization (TRAD; n = 7), with 12 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions. The HIT was interspersed with low-intensity training (LIT) so that similar total volumes of both HIT and LIT were performed in the two groups. BP achieved a larger relative improvement in VO(2max) than TRAD (8.8 ± 5.9% vs 3.7 ± 2.9%, respectively, P < 0.05) and a tendency toward larger increase in power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-) ] (22 ± 14% vs 10 ± 7%, respectively, P = 0.054). Mean effect size (ES) of the relative improvement in VO(2max) , power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-) ], hemoglobin mass, and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial revealed moderate superior effects of BP compared with TRAD training (ES range was 0.62-1.12). The present study suggests that BP of endurance training has superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with TRAD.

Concepts: Effect, Training, Performance, Effect size, Aerobic exercise, Play, Periodization, Endurance training


This study was designed to examine whether concurrent sprint interval and strength training (CT) would result in compromised strength development when compared to strength training (ST) alone. In addition, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion (TTE) were measured to determine if sprint interval training (SIT) would augment aerobic performance.

Concepts: Strength training, Exercise physiology, Aerobic exercise, Running, Cooper test, VO2 max, Physical fitness, Interval training