SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Advent

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Mechanical ventilation is a life-sustaining therapy for the treatment of patients with acute respiratory failure. It is a very common modality in intensive care units (ICU), and indeed the advent of its use heralded the dawn of modern ICUs. Interest in mechanical ventilation has increased markedly from both a research and a clinical perspective over the past 15 years since the publication of a milestone article in the New England Journal of Medicine by the ARDSNet investigators which highlighted the importance of a lung protective ventilation strategy1.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Pulmonology, Lung, Intensive care medicine, French language, History, Advent

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The treatment of hyponatremia, an exceedingly common electrolyte disorder, has been a subject of controversy for many years. The advent of vasopressin antagonists (vaptans) has added to the treatment arsenal. This review focuses on why hyponatremia should be treated and the role of these antagonists in the treatment. Upon analysis of the available literature, we conclude that there is presently no role for vaptans in acute symptomatic hyponatremia. Although numerous therapeutic approaches are available for chronic symptomatic hyponatremia, vasopressin antagonists provide a simpler treatment option. Vaptans are efficacious in raising serum sodium in long-standing ‘asymptomatic’ hyponatremia. However, the cost of the only Food and Drug Administration-approved oral agent (tolvaptan) makes its use prohibitive for most patients in this setting.Kidney International advance online publication, 19 December 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.402.

Concepts: Chronic, Vasopressin, Sodium, Acute, Hyponatremia, 2012, 2012 phenomenon, Advent

25

The advent of three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry in recent years has vastly helped the craniomaxillofacial field improve in terms of preoperative and intraoperative decision making. With regard to the auricle though, there is paucity of research as to the application of this promising technology.

Concepts: Decision making, Advent

23

Epiretinal membranes (ERM) have been increasingly characterized with the advent of new optical coherence tomographies (OCTs). We intended to perform a systematic review regarding prognostic factors (PF) of ERM after surgery.

Concepts: Optics, Thought experiment, Epiretinal membrane, Advent

13

With the advent of social media, the impressions people make on others are based increasingly on their digital disclosures. However, digital disclosures can come back to haunt, making it challenging for people to manage the impressions they make. In field and online experiments in which participants take, share, and evaluate self-photographs (“selfies”), we show that, paradoxically, these challenges can be exacerbated by temporary-sharing media-technologies that prevent content from being stored permanently. Relative to permanent sharing, temporary sharing affects both whether and what people reveal. Specifically, temporary sharing increases compliance with the request to take a selfie (study 1) and induces greater disclosure risks (i.e., people exhibit greater disinhibition in their selfies, studies 1 and 2). This increased disclosure is driven by reduced privacy concerns (study 2). However, observers' impressions of sharers are insensitive to permanence (i.e., whether the selfie was shared temporarily versus permanently) and are instead driven by the disinhibition exhibited in the selfie (studies 4-7). As a result, induced by the promise of temporary sharing, sharers of uninhibited selfies come across as having worse judgment than those who share relatively discreet selfies (studies 1, 2, and 4-7)-an attributional pattern that is unanticipated by sharers (study 3), that persists days after the selfie has disappeared (study 5), is robust to personal experience with temporary sharing (studies 6A and 6B), and holds even among friends (studies 7A and 7B). Temporary sharing may bring back forgetting, but not without introducing new (self-presentational) challenges.

Concepts: Relative, Cultural studies, Relative clause, Advent, A-6 Intruder, Temporary work, Temporary, The Impressions

9

With the advent of effective modern chemotherapeutic and biologic agents, primary tumor resection for patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) may not be routinely necessary.

Concepts: Present, Cancer, Oncology, Cancer staging, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Colorectal cancer, Advent

9

BACKGROUND: Since Kanner’s first description of autism there have been a number of changes in approaches to diagnosis with certain key continuities . Since the Fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) appeared in 1994 there has been an explosion in research publications. The advent of changes in DSM-5 presents some important moves forward as well as some potential challenges. METHODS: The various relevant studies are summarized. RESULTS: If research diagnostic instruments are available, many (but not all) cases with a DSM-IV diagnosis of autism continue to have this diagnosis. The overall efficiency of this system falls if only one source of information is available and, particularly, if the criteria are used outside the research context. The impact is probably greatest among the most cognitively able cases and those with less classic autism presentations. CONCLUSIONS: Significant discontinuities in diagnostic practice raise significant problems for both research and clinical services. For DSM-5, the impact of these changes remains unclear.

Concepts: Diagnosis, Autism, 2000s music groups, Clinical psychology, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Hans Asperger, Advent, Leo Kanner

8

Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) treatment has been revolutionised in the last two decades with the increasing use of Intravenous Thrombolysis (IVT) and with the advent of Endovascular therapy (EVT). AIS treatment and outcome are time dependant and time saving measures are being implemented at every step of the treatment chain. These changes have resulted in lower treatment times in-hospital, but it is unclear if this translates into more patients being treated within 60 min of symptom onset - the Golden Hour. The clinical outcome of IVT therapy in this patient group was our secondary outcome.

Concepts: Time, Medical terms, Patient, Stroke, Thrombosis, Thrombolysis, Advent

6

The treatment of mitral regurgitation has changed in recent years due to the advent of interventional techniques, mostly the percutaneous edge-to-edge repair, and, more recently, annuloplasty and chordal replacement. In the future, more advances are expected from further development of interventional techniques, careful evaluation and better patient selection.

Concepts: Future, Mitral valve, Mitral regurgitation, Mitral valve prolapse, Regurgitation, Mitral valve repair, Advent

4

For over two decades, interactions between brain regions have been measured in humans by asking how the univariate responses in different regions co-vary (‘Functional Connectivity’). Thousands of Functional Connectivity studies have been published investigating the healthy brain and how it is affected by neural disorders. The advent of multivariate fMRI analyses showed that patterns of responses within regions encode information that is lost by averaging. Despite this, connectivity methods predominantly continue to focus on univariate responses. In this review, we discuss the recent emergence of multivariate and nonlinear methods for studying interactions between brain regions. These new developments bring sensitivity to fluctuations in multivariate information, and offer the possibility to ask not only whether brain regions interact, but how they do so.

Concepts: Central nervous system, Interaction, Human brain, Multivariate statistics, Emergence, Programming language, Advent