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Concept: Adulthood

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Middle adolescents' close friendship strength and the degree to which their broader peer group expressed a preference to affiliate with them were examined as predictors of relative change in depressive symptoms, self-worth, and social anxiety symptoms from ages 15 to 25 using multimethod, longitudinal data from 169 adolescents. Close friendship strength in midadolescence predicted relative increases in self-worth and decreases in anxiety and depressive symptoms by early adulthood. Affiliation preference by the broader peer group, in contrast, predicted higher social anxiety by early adulthood. Results are interpreted as suggesting that adolescents who prioritize forming close friendships are better situated to manage key social developmental tasks going forward than adolescents who prioritize attaining preference with many others in their peer milieu.

Concepts: Anxiety, Psychology, Sociology, Adolescence, Adult, Friendship, Adulthood, 2000 albums

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Increased adiposity is linked with higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to determine to what extent elevated body mass index (BMI) within the normal weight range has causal effects on the detailed systemic metabolite profile in early adulthood.

Concepts: Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, Adult, Adulthood, Adult development

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Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD symptoms in childhood and adulthood, and then were compared for baseline and outcome differences. Results: In all, 42% met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for ODD as adults and were significantly more impaired on measures of ADHD, personality disorder, and substance abuse and 27% had childhood ODD that had resolved. Childhood and adult ODD symptoms were significantly correlated. ODD and ADHD symptoms improved significantly with MTS (p < .001), and the most consistently significant results were found in participants with adult ODD. Conclusion: A total of 69% met criteria for ODD as children and/or adults. Understanding how ODD interacts with ADHD to impact personality disorder, substance abuse, and treatment response has important clinical, social, and theoretical implications.

Concepts: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Mental disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Methylphenidate, Oppositional defiant disorder, Adult, Coming of age, Adulthood

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ABSTRACT Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Gender role, Human sexual behavior, Human sexuality, Human behavior, Parenting, Adult, Adulthood

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Maltreatment in childhood and adolescence is a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adulthood. This association has rarely been investigated in the light of emotion dysregulation. To fill this gap, this study examines emotion dysregulation and SUDs among adults with a history of early maltreatment.

Concepts: Avicenna, Childhood, Physical dependence, Substance abuse, Adult, Coming of age, Adulthood, Emotional dysregulation

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The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined ‘most important’ autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61-70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump is largely driven by constructive, schematic factors at retrieval, thereby challenging most existing theoretical accounts.

Concepts: Scientific method, Memory, Distribution, Theory, Adult, Autobiographical memory, Distribution of wealth, Adulthood

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Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18-25), and middle adulthood (ages 26-49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs.

Concepts: Middle age, Age, Gerontology, Ageing, Adult, Coming of age, Adulthood, Homelessness in the United States

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This study examines historical variation in individual trajectories of heavy drinking and marijuana use from age 18 to 22. Unlike most studies that have examined cohort differences in drug use, it focuses on differences in both level of use and rates of change (growth). Nearly 39,000 youths from the high school classes of 1976-2004 were surveyed at biennial intervals between the ages of 18 and 22 as part of the national Monitoring the Future study. Between 1976 and 2004, adolescent heavy drinking decreased substantially. However, because the age 18-22 heavy drinking growth rate increased threefold for males and sixfold for females during this period, heavy drinking among 21- to 22-year-olds remained largely stable. The growth rate for marijuana use was more stable across cohorts, and historical declines in use were sizable across the entire 18-22 age band. Generally, historical variation in use was unrelated to college status and living arrangements as well as to historical changes in the distribution of young adult social roles. Findings suggest that historical fluctuations in use were less the result of proximal young adult factors and more the result of historical variation in distal adolescent factors, the effect of which diminished with age, especially for heavy drinking.

Concepts: The Age, Drug addiction, Adolescence, Youth, Adult, Young adult, Adulthood

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Background Childhood overweight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. We investigated whether remission of overweight before early adulthood reduces this risk. Methods We conducted a study involving 62,565 Danish men whose weights and heights had been measured at 7 and 13 years of age and in early adulthood (17 to 26 years of age). Overweight was defined in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Data on type 2 diabetes status (at age ≥30 years, 6710 persons) were obtained from a national health registry. Results Overweight at 7 years of age (3373 of 62,565 men; 5.4%), 13 years of age (3418 of 62,565; 5.5%), or early adulthood (5108 of 62,565; 8.2%) was positively associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes; associations were stronger at older ages at overweight and at younger ages at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Men who had had remission of overweight before the age of 13 years had a risk of having type 2 diabetes diagnosed at 30 to 60 years of age that was similar to that among men who had never been overweight (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.21). As compared with men who had never been overweight, men who had been overweight at 7 and 13 years of age but not during early adulthood had a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.98), but their risk was lower than that among men with persistent overweight (hazard ratio [persistently overweight vs. never overweight], 4.14; 95% CI, 3.57 to 4.79). An increase in body-mass index between 7 years of age and early adulthood was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, even among men whose weight had been normal at 7 years of age. Conclusions Childhood overweight at 7 years of age was associated with increased risks of adult type 2 diabetes only if it continued until puberty or later ages. (Funded by the European Union.).

Concepts: European Union, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Risk, Obesity, Normal distribution, Adult, Coming of age, Adulthood