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Concept: Adenocarcinoma

264

Pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PAs) have very poor prognoses even when surgery is possible. Currently, there are no tissular biomarkers to predict long-term survival in patients with PA. The aims of this study were to (1) describe the metabolome of pancreatic parenchyma (PP) and PA, (2) determine the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on PP and PA, and (3) find tissue metabolic biomarkers associated with long-term survivors, using metabolomics analysis.

Concepts: Metabolism, Enzyme, Adenocarcinoma, Pancreatic cancer, Digestion, Metabolomics, Metabolome, Antimetabolite

209

Background Most patients with locally advanced, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have disease progression despite definitive chemoradiotherapy (chemotherapy plus concurrent radiation therapy). This phase 3 study compared the anti-programmed death ligand 1 antibody durvalumab as consolidation therapy with placebo in patients with stage III NSCLC who did not have disease progression after two or more cycles of platinum-based chemoradiotherapy. Methods We randomly assigned patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive durvalumab (at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight intravenously) or placebo every 2 weeks for up to 12 months. The study drug was administered 1 to 42 days after the patients had received chemoradiotherapy. The coprimary end points were progression-free survival (as assessed by means of blinded independent central review) and overall survival (unplanned for the interim analysis). Secondary end points included 12-month and 18-month progression-free survival rates, the objective response rate, the duration of response, the time to death or distant metastasis, and safety. Results Of 713 patients who underwent randomization, 709 received consolidation therapy (473 received durvalumab and 236 received placebo). The median progression-free survival from randomization was 16.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0 to 18.1) with durvalumab versus 5.6 months (95% CI, 4.6 to 7.8) with placebo (stratified hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.65; P<0.001); the 12-month progression-free survival rate was 55.9% versus 35.3%, and the 18-month progression-free survival rate was 44.2% versus 27.0%. The response rate was higher with durvalumab than with placebo (28.4% vs. 16.0%; P<0.001), and the median duration of response was longer (72.8% vs. 46.8% of the patients had an ongoing response at 18 months). The median time to death or distant metastasis was longer with durvalumab than with placebo (23.2 months vs. 14.6 months; P<0.001). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 29.9% of the patients who received durvalumab and 26.1% of those who received placebo; the most common adverse event of grade 3 or 4 was pneumonia (4.4% and 3.8%, respectively). A total of 15.4% of patients in the durvalumab group and 9.8% of those in the placebo group discontinued the study drug because of adverse events. Conclusions Progression-free survival was significantly longer with durvalumab than with placebo. The secondary end points also favored durvalumab, and safety was similar between the groups. (Funded by AstraZeneca; PACIFIC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02125461 .).

Concepts: Time, Clinical trial, Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Chemotherapy, Adenocarcinoma

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Many high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) of the pelvis are thought to originate in the distal portion of the fallopian tube. Serous tubal intra-epithelial carcinoma (STIC) lesions are the putative precursor to HGSC and identifiable in ~ 50% of advanced stage cases. To better understand the molecular etiology of HGSCs, we report a multi-center integrated genomic analysis of advanced stage tumors with and without STIC lesions and normal tissues. The most significant focal DNA SCNAs were shared between cases with and without STIC lesions. The RNA sequence and the miRNA data did not identify any clear separation between cases with and without STIC lesions. HGSCs had molecular profiles more similar to normal fallopian tube epithelium than ovarian surface epithelium or peritoneum. The data suggest that the molecular features of HGSCs with and without associated STIC lesions are mostly shared, indicating a common biologic origin, likely to be the distal fallopian tube among all cases.High-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) are associated with precursor lesions (STICs) in the fallopian epithelium in only half of the cases. Here the authors report the molecular analysis of HGSCs with and without associated STICs and show similar profiles supporting a common origin for all HGSCs.

Concepts: Cancer, RNA, Epithelium, Anatomical pathology, Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Tubal ligation, Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

170

Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) in adenoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare mixed glandular-endocrine neoplasm and has uncommonly been described mostly in the colon. Histologically, this tumor is composed of a predominant proportion of benign adenomatous component and a small portion of well-differentiated NE component. Only three cases of NET in gastric adenoma have been reported in the literature. We present 4 cases of NET in gastric adenoma mimicking invasive adenocarcinoma. The NETs were 0.62 mm to 4.1 mm in size and located at the basal lamina propria, muscularis mucosa and submucosa. Histologically, NETs consisted of nests, cords, tubules, and clusters of cells that predominantly interposed between the foveolar base without disturbing the overall polyp architecture. The lesions were completely removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection in three cases and in one case, subtotal gastrectomy was performed because endoscopic biopsy was invasive adenocarcinoma. The patients' clinical course was uneventful without an evidence of recurrence or metastasis. The recognition of NET in gastric adenoma will help avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls masquerading as invasvie adenocarcinomas posed by their infiltrative pattern into submucosa. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1688552293761001.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Mucous membrane, Anatomical pathology, Adenocarcinoma, Esophagus, Lamina propria, Muscularis mucosae

138

Afatinib 40 mg/day is approved for first-line treatment of EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the case of drug-related grade ≥3 or selected prolonged grade 2 adverse events (AEs), the dose can be reduced by 10 mg decrements to a minimum of 20 mg. Here, we evaluate the influence of afatinib dose reduction on AEs, pharmacokinetics and progression-free survival (PFS) in the phase III LUX-Lung 3 and 6 (LL3/6) trials.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cancer, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Cancer staging, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma

123

Background Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune-checkpoint-inhibitor antibody, disrupts PD-1-mediated signaling and may restore antitumor immunity. Methods In this randomized, open-label, international phase 3 study, we assigned patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that had progressed during or after platinum-based doublet chemotherapy to receive nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks or docetaxel at a dose of 75 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks. The primary end point was overall survival. Results Overall survival was longer with nivolumab than with docetaxel. The median overall survival was 12.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.7 to 15.0) among 292 patients in the nivolumab group and 9.4 months (95% CI, 8.1 to 10.7) among 290 patients in the docetaxel group (hazard ratio for death, 0.73; 96% CI, 0.59 to 0.89; P=0.002). At 1 year, the overall survival rate was 51% (95% CI, 45 to 56) with nivolumab versus 39% (95% CI, 33 to 45) with docetaxel. With additional follow-up, the overall survival rate at 18 months was 39% (95% CI, 34 to 45) with nivolumab versus 23% (95% CI, 19 to 28) with docetaxel. The response rate was 19% with nivolumab versus 12% with docetaxel (P=0.02). Although progression-free survival did not favor nivolumab over docetaxel (median, 2.3 months and 4.2 months, respectively), the rate of progression-free survival at 1 year was higher with nivolumab than with docetaxel (19% and 8%, respectively). Nivolumab was associated with even greater efficacy than docetaxel across all end points in subgroups defined according to prespecified levels of tumor-membrane expression (≥1%, ≥5%, and ≥10%) of the PD-1 ligand. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were reported in 10% of the patients in the nivolumab group, as compared with 54% of those in the docetaxel group. Conclusions Among patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC that had progressed during or after platinum-based chemotherapy, overall survival was longer with nivolumab than with docetaxel. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 057 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01673867 .).

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Chemotherapy, Adenocarcinoma, Paclitaxel, Bristol-Myers Squibb

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Background Patients with advanced squamous-cell non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have disease progression during or after first-line chemotherapy have limited treatment options. This randomized, open-label, international, phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune-checkpoint-inhibitor antibody, as compared with docetaxel in this patient population. Methods We randomly assigned 272 patients to receive nivolumab, at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks, or docetaxel, at a dose of 75 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks. The primary end point was overall survival. Results The median overall survival was 9.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3 to 13.3) with nivolumab versus 6.0 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 7.3) with docetaxel. The risk of death was 41% lower with nivolumab than with docetaxel (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.79; P<0.001). At 1 year, the overall survival rate was 42% (95% CI, 34 to 50) with nivolumab versus 24% (95% CI, 17 to 31) with docetaxel. The response rate was 20% with nivolumab versus 9% with docetaxel (P=0.008). The median progression-free survival was 3.5 months with nivolumab versus 2.8 months with docetaxel (hazard ratio for death or disease progression, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.81; P<0.001). The expression of the PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) was neither prognostic nor predictive of benefit. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were reported in 7% of the patients in the nivolumab group as compared with 55% of those in the docetaxel group. Conclusions Among patients with advanced, previously treated squamous-cell NSCLC, overall survival, response rate, and progression-free survival were significantly better with nivolumab than with docetaxel, regardless of PD-L1 expression level. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 017 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01642004 .).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Demography, Adenocarcinoma, Paclitaxel, Bristol-Myers Squibb

110

Increased early detection and personalized therapy for lung cancer have coincided with greater use of minimally invasive sampling techniques such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided biopsy (EBUS), endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy (EUS), and navigational biopsy, as well as thin needle core biopsies. As many lung cancer patients have late stage disease and other comorbidities that make open surgical procedures hazardous, the least invasive biopsy technique with the highest potential specimen yield is now the preferred first diagnostic study. However, use of these less invasive procedures generates significant analytical challenges for the laboratory, such as a requirement for robust detection of low level somatic mutations, particularly when the starting sample is very small or demonstrates few intact tumor cells. In this study, we assessed 179 clinical cases of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) that had been previously tested for EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations using a novel multiplexed analytic approach that reduces wild-type signal and allows for detection of low mutation load approaching 1%, iPLEX® HS panel for the MassARRAY® System (Agena Bioscience, San Diego, CA). This highly sensitive system identified approximately 10% more KRAS, NRAS, EGFR and BRAF mutations than were detected by the original test platform, which had a sensitivity range of 5-10% variant allele frequency (VAF).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Cancer staging, Adenocarcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Medical test

56

Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) carrying tumour-specific sequence alterations may provide a minimally invasive means to dynamically assess tumour burden and response to treatment in cancer patients. Somatic TP53 mutations are a defining feature of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). We tested whether these mutations could be used as personalised markers to monitor tumour burden and early changes as a predictor of response and time to progression (TTP).

Concepts: Cancer, Mutation, Oncology, Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, BRCA2, Adenocarcinoma, Minimally invasive, BRCA1

38

The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether both ubiquitous and heterogeneous somatic mutations could be detected in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Mutation, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Cancer staging, Tobacco smoking, Adenocarcinoma