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Concept: Adductor canal

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) reduces pain after total knee arthroplasty without the motor blockade associated with epidural analgesia or femoral nerve block. However, the duration and efficacy of LIA are not sufficient. A saphenous nerve block, in addition to single-dose LIA, may improve analgesia without interfering with early mobilization. METHODS: Forty patients were included in this double-blind randomized controlled trial. All patients received spinal anesthesia for surgery and single-dose LIA during the operation. An ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve catheter was placed postoperatively in the adductor canal at midthigh level. Patients were randomized into 2 groups to receive 15-mL boluses of either ropivacaine 7.5 mg/mL or saline twice daily for 2 postoperative days. RESULTS: Worst pain scores during movement on the day of surgery were significantly lower in the ropivacaine group (median [range] visual analog scale, 3 [0-7] vs 5.5 [0-10]; P < 0.050), as well as pain at rest (visual analog scale, 2 [0-8] vs 4 [0-8]; P = 0.032). Breakthrough pain occurred later in the ropivacaine group (10.5 [range, 0.5-48] hours vs 3.4 [range, 0.5-24] hours; P = 0.011). All patients in the ropivacaine group were able to ambulate on the day of surgery versus 13 patients in the control group (P = 0.004). Fewer patients had sleep disturbance on the first postoperative night in the ropivacaine group (P = 0.038). We found no differences in morphine consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of a saphenous nerve block with single-dose LIA offered better pain relief on the day of surgery than LIA alone.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Anesthesia, Pain, Morphine, Epidural, Fentanyl, Saphenous nerve, Adductor canal

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Proximal and distal (mid-thigh) ultrasound-guided continuous adductor canal block techniques have been described but not yet compared, and infusion benefits or side effects may be determined by catheter location. We hypothesized that proximal placement will result in faster onset of saphenous nerve anesthesia, without additional motor block, compared to a distal technique.

Concepts: Creativity techniques, Anatomy, Knee replacement, Great saphenous vein, Saphenous nerve, Adductor canal, Adductor hiatus

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Femoral continuous peripheral nerve blocks (CPNBs) provide effective analgesia after TKA but have been associated with quadriceps weakness and delayed ambulation. A promising alternative is adductor canal CPNB that delivers a primarily sensory blockade; however, the differential effects of these two techniques on functional outcomes after TKA are not well established.

Concepts: Femoral vein, Peripheral nervous system, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve, Nerve block, Adductor canal

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Adductor canal blocks (ACBs) are an alternative to femoral nerve blocks that minimize lower extremity weakness. However, it is unclear whether this block will provide analgesia that is equivalent to techniques, such as epidural analgesia. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to compare continuous ACBs with epidural analgesia for primary total knee arthroplasty.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Pain, Sartorius muscle, Morphine, Femoral vein, Knee replacement, Saphenous nerve, Adductor canal

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To determine whether any strength, range of motion (ROM), or functional improvement exists in the adductor canal block (ACB) group after completion of inpatient rehabilitation and following the removal of the continuous block.

Concepts: Function, Sartorius muscle, Real number, Femoral vein, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve, Femoral triangle, Adductor canal

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Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain. This study evaluates the technique of local infiltration analgesia (LIA), by comparing it to saline injections in addition to a standardized multimodal regimen including an adductor canal block.

Concepts: Experimental design, Clinical trial, ClinicalTrials.gov, Clinical research, Placebo, Knee replacement, Adductor canal

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Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with significant pain post-operatively. Our hypothesis is that adductor canal block (ACB) would be superior to local infiltration analgesia (LIA) in terms of providing analgesia, while still preserving quadriceps strength and enabling early postoperative rehabilitation.

Concepts: Experimental design, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, ClinicalTrials.gov, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Knee replacement, Adductor canal

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Femoral nerve (FNB) and adductor canal blocks (ACB) are used in the setting of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but neither has been demonstrated to be clearly superior. Although dynamometer studies have shown ACBs spare perioperative quadriceps function when compared to FNBs, ACBs have been widely adopted in orthopaedic surgery without significant evidence that they decrease the risk of perioperative falls.

Concepts: Cohort study, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, Sartorius muscle, Femoral vein, Knee replacement, Saphenous nerve, Adductor canal

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Pain management after total knee arthroplasty has seen many recent advances such as peripheral nerve blocks in order to improve the functional outcome and reduce morbidity after surgery. Adductor canal block (ACB) and multimodal periarticular infiltration (MPI) are two techniques that have been proven to be efficacious individually. We hypothesized that the combination of ACB with MPI would reduce pain and improve knee range of movement (ROM) compared to ACB alone.

Concepts: Pain, Anatomy, Knee replacement, Peripheral nervous system, Block, Nerve block, Blocking, Adductor canal

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Adductor canal block (ACB) is popular for knee analgesia because of its favorable effect on quadriceps strength. The aim of this study was to find the minimum volume of local anesthetic, which can be injected into the ACB that would result in quadriceps weakness.

Concepts: Knee, Anesthesia, Local anesthesia, Local anesthetic, Quadriceps femoris muscle, Adductor canal