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Concept: Acute pancreatitis


The original 1992 Atlanta Classification System for acute pancreatitis was revised in 2012 by the Atlanta Working Group, assisted by various national and international societies, through web-based consensus. This revised classification identifies two phases of acute pancreatitis: early and late. Acute pancreatitis can be either oedematous interstitial pancreatitis or necrotizing pancreatitis. Severity of the disease is categorized into three levels: mild, moderately severe and severe, depending upon organ failure and local/systemic complications. According to the type of pancreatitis, collections are further divided into acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pseudocyst, acute necrotic collection, and walled-off necrosis. Insight into the revised terminology is essential for accurate communication of imaging findings. In this review article, we will summarize the updated nomenclature and illustrate corresponding imaging findings using examples.

Concepts: Inflammation, Necrotizing fasciitis, Necrosis, Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatitis, Chronic pancreatitis


Even in expert hands, there can be serious complications when performing an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The most frequent complications are pancreatitis, cholangitis, bleeding, perforation, and acute cholecystitis. The hepatic subcapsular haematoma is a rare complication, with few cases described worldwide.

Concepts: Gastroenterology, Acute pancreatitis, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Ascending cholangitis, Jaundice


A 63-year-old man with no history of alcohol abuse presented with sudden, severe epigastric pain. The serum lipase level was elevated, a finding consistent with acute pancreatitis. Despite supportive care with fluid hydration, pain medication, and bowel rest, the patient’s condition deteriorated.

Concepts: Patient, Alcoholism, Gastroenterology, Alcohol abuse, Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatitis


Pancreatitis is the most common serious complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We performed a pilot study to determine whether aggressive peri-procedural hydration with lactated Ringer’s solution reduces the incidence of pancreatitis following ERCP.

Concepts: Intravenous fluids, Lactic acid, Lactated Ringer's solution, Acute pancreatitis, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Saline, Hartmann's Solution


To evaluate the effects of pulse high-volume hemofiltration (PHVHF) on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Thirty patients were divided into two groups: PHVHF group and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) group. They were evaluated in terms of clinical symptoms, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, simplified acute physiology (SAPS) II score and biochemical changes. The levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in plasma were assessed by ELISA before and after treatment. The doses of dopamine used in shock patients were also analyzed. In the two groups, symptoms were markedly improved after treatment. Body temperature (BT), breath rate (BR), heart rate (HR), APACHE II score, SOFA score, SAPS II score, serum amylase, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein were decreased after hemofiltration (P < 0.05). The PHVHF group was superior to the CVVH group, especially in APACHE II score, CRP (P < 0.01), HR, temperature, SOFA score and SAPS II score (P < 0.05). The doses of dopamine for shock patients were also decreased in the two groups (P < 0.05), with more reduction in the PHVHF group than the CVVH group (P < 0.05). The levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α decreased (P < 0.05) in the PHVHF group more significantly than the CVVH group (P < 0.01). PHVHF appears to be superior to CVVH in the treatment of SAP with MODS.

Concepts: Blood, Intensive care medicine, Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, Hemofiltration, Acute pancreatitis, APACHE II, SAPS II


Acute pancreatitis is most commonly caused by gallstones or chronic alcohol use, and accounts for more than 200,000 hospital admissions annually. Using the Atlanta criteria, acute pancreatitis is diagnosed when a patient presents with two of three findings, including abdominal pain suggestive of pancreatitis, serum amylase and/or lipase levels at least three times the normal level, and characteristic findings on imaging. It is important to distinguish mild from severe disease because severe pancreatitis has a mortality rate of up to 30%. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is considered the diagnostic standard for radiologic evaluation of acute pancreatitis because of its success in predicting disease severity and prognosis. The BALI and computed tomography severity index scores also can aid in determining disease severity and predicting the likelihood of complications. Treatment begins with pain control, hydration, and bowel rest. In the first 48 to 72 hours of treatment, monitoring is required to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with worsening pancreatitis. When prolonged bowel rest is indicated, enteral nutrition is associated with lower rates of complications, including death, multiorgan failure, local complications, and systemic infections, than parenteral nutrition. In severe cases involving greater than 30% necrosis, antibiotic prophylaxis with imipenem/cilastatin decreases the risk of pancreatic infection. In gallstone-associated pancreatitis, early cholecystectomy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy can decrease length of hospital stay and complication rates. A multidisciplinary approach to care is essential in cases involving pancreatic necrosis.

Concepts: Death, Mortality rate, Infection, Abdominal pain, Gastroenterology, Acute pancreatitis, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Pancreatitis


We aimed to assess the risk of death, cancer, and comorbidities among patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP).

Concepts: Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatitis, Chronic pancreatitis


Acute pancreatitis can be attributed to numerous potential causes, such as alcohol abuse, chololithiasis, infection, lesions, tumors, hypercalcemia, hyperlipidemia, and medications. Among psychotropic medications, the use of some atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone, has been implicated in the development of acute pancreatitis, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. We describe the case of a young man with no other major medical problems, alcohol abuse or predisposing factors, who developed acute necrotizing pancreatitis following olanzapine administration, possibly through severe elevation of serum triglycerides. A pharmacogenomic analysis revealed the presence of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C, G protein-coupled (HTR2C) -759C genotype which is related to increased risk for metabolic syndrome.

Concepts: Serotonin, Tardive dyskinesia, Antipsychotic, Schizophrenia, Atypical antipsychotic, Clozapine, Acute pancreatitis, Atypical antipsychotics



Severe hypertriglyceridemia is associated with increased risk of acute pancreatitis. However, the threshold above which triglycerides are associated with acute pancreatitis is unclear.

Concepts: Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatitis, Chronic pancreatitis, Hypertriglyceridemia