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Concept: Acute kidney injury

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BACKGROUND:Case reports indicate that the use of fluoroquinolones may lead to acute kidney injury. We studied the association between the use of oral fluoroquinolones and acute kidney injury, and we examined interaction with renin-angiotensin-system blockers. METHODS:We formed a nested cohort of men aged 40-85 enrolled in the United States IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database between 2001 and 2011. We defined cases as men admitted to hospital for acute kidney injury, and controls were admitted to hospital with a different presenting diagnosis. Using risk-set sampling, we matched 10 controls to each case based on hospital admission, calendar time (within 6 wk), cohort entrance (within 6 wk) and age (within 5 yr). We used conditional logistic regression to assess the rate ratio (RR) for acute kidney injury with current, recent and past use of fluoroquinolones, adjusted by potential confounding variables. We repeated this analysis with amoxicillin and azithromycin as controls. We used a case-time-control design for our secondary analysis. RESULTS:We identified 1292 cases and 12 651 matched controls. Current fluoroquinolone use had a 2.18-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-2.73) higher adjusted RR of acute kidney injury compared with no use. There was no association between acute kidney injury and recent (adjusted RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.66-1.16) or past (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.66-1.12) use. The absolute in crease in acute kidney injury was 6.5 events per 10 000 person-years. We observed 1 additional case per 1529 patients given fluoroquinolones or per 3287 prescriptions dispensed. The dual use of fluoroquinolones and renin- angiotensin-system blockers had an RR of 4.46 (95% CI 2.84-6.99) for acute kidney injury. Our case-time-control analysis confirmed an increased risk of acute kidney injury with fluoroquinolone use (RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.52-3.18). The use of amoxicillin or azithro mycin was not associated with acute kidney injury. INTERPRETATION:We found a small, but significant, increased risk of acute kidney injury among men with the use of oral fluoroquinolones, as well as a significant interaction between the concomitant use of fluoroquinolones and renin- angiotensin-system blockers.

Concepts: Logistic regression, Acute kidney injury, Confounding, Trigraph, Gh, Case, Statistical terminology, Quinolone

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A patient with a known biopsy of polyarteritis nodosa diagnosis presented with cyclic fevers, acute kidney injury, and progression of rash from macular to pustular, worsening despite being on antibiotics, without evidence of infection on multiple cultures. The patient had a pathological diagnosis from a skin biopsy of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis syndrome, with a total resolution of rash, fevers, and acute kidney injury on treatment with pulse steroids.

Concepts: Inflammation, Biopsy, Pathology, Rheumatology, Vasculitis, Acute kidney injury, Polyarteritis nodosa, Diseases involving the fasciae

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In acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) is high. Early detection of patients at risk for AKI is important. We tested urinary [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP7], a new US Food and Drug Administration-cleared test to assess AKI risk, in a cohort of hospitalized ADHF patients.

Concepts: Kidney, Hospital, Heart failure, Acute kidney injury, Cardiovascular diseases, Andrew Martin, Acute decompensated heart failure

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The study objective was to determine whether intravenous contrast administration for computed tomography (CT) is independently associated with increased risk for acute kidney injury and adverse clinical outcomes.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Radiography, Tomographic reconstruction, Acute kidney injury, Management, Contrast medium, Radiocontrast, Contrast

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High urine flow rate (UFR) has been suggested as a target for effective prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The RenalGuard therapy (saline infusion plus furosemide controlled by the RenalGuard system) facilitates the achievement of this target.

Concepts: Kidney, Urine, Acute kidney injury

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious problem affecting millions and causing death and disability for many. In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes completed the first ever, international, multidisciplinary, clinical practice guideline for AKI. The guideline is based on evidence review and appraisal, and covers AKI definition, risk assessment, evaluation, prevention, and treatment. In this review we summarize key aspects of the guideline including definition and staging of AKI, as well as evaluation and nondialytic management. Contrast-induced AKI and management of renal replacement therapy will be addressed in a separate review. Treatment recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant trials. Appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Limitations of the evidence are discussed and a detailed rationale for each recommendation is provided.

Concepts: Renal failure, Kidney, Nephrology, Cancer, Evaluation, Acute kidney injury

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The rationale of urine alkalinization through intravenous sodium bicarbonate to prevent cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury relies on several pathophysiological arguments. Urine alkalinization is easily feasible in the ICU setting and is often considered to be associated with few side effects. In a previous issue of Critical Care, a retrospective study evaluates the effect of routine intravenous bicarbonate use to prevent cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury with cardiopulmonary bypass. This commentary discusses recent data on the use of bicarbonate to prevent cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury.

Concepts: Kidney, Carbon dioxide, Effect, Effectiveness, Retrospective, Acute kidney injury, Effects unit, Sodium bicarbonate

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BackgroundFollowing advice from the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group, we switched our antibiotic prophylaxis for elective hip and knee replacement surgery from cefuroxime to flucloxacillin with single-dose gentamicin in order to reduce the incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD). A clinical impression that more patients subsequently developed acute kidney injury (AKI) led us to examine this possibility in more detail.MethodsWe examined the incidence of AKI in 198 consecutive patients undergoing elective hip or knee surgery. These patients were given the following prophylactic antibiotics: cefuroxime (n = 48); then high-dose (HD) flucloxacillin (5-8 g) with single-dose gentamicin (n = 52); then low-dose (LD) flucloxacillin (3-4 g) with single-dose gentamicin (n = 46) and finally cefuroxime again (n = 52).ResultsPatients receiving HD flucloxacillin required more vasopressors during surgery (P = 0.02); otherwise, there were no statistically significant differences in pre- and peri-operative characteristics between the four groups. The proportion of patients with any form of AKI by RIFLE criteria was first cefuroxime (8%), HD flucloxacillin with gentamicin (52%), LD flucloxacillin with gentamicin (22%) and second cefuroxime (14%; P < 0.0001). Odds ratios for AKI derived from a multivariate logistic regression model, adjusted also for sex and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, with the first cefuroxime group as a reference category were: HD flucloxacillin with gentamicin 14.53 (4.25-49.71); LD flucloxacillin with gentamicin 2.96 (0.81-10.81) and second cefuroxime 2.01 (0.52-7.73). Three patients required temporary haemodialysis. Biopsies in two of these showed acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. All three patients belonged to the HD flucloxacillin with gentamicin group. None of the patients developed CDAD.ConclusionsWe have shown an association between the prophylactic antibiotic regimen and subsequent development of AKI following primary hip and knee arthroplasty that appeared to be due to the use of HD flucloxacillin with single-dose gentamicin. We found no evidence to suggest that this association was confounded by any of the co-variates we measured.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Kidney, Statistical significance, Acute kidney injury, Antibiotic, Knee replacement, Clostridium difficile, Interstitial nephritis

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: Retrospective studies have identified elevated vancomycin trough levels >20 mg/L as a predictor of nephrotoxicity with a high variable incidence of 12.6%-65%. However, the elevated levels may represent the effect of renal compromise rather than the cause of nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to report the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and associated risk factors in adult patients with vancomycin trough levels >20 mg/L in a prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at a Hospital.

Concepts: Renal failure, Kidney, Nephrology, Hospital, Medical statistics, Acute kidney injury, Vancomycin, Cultural studies

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ADQI - Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative - is a process that was created seeking consensus and evidence-based recommendations in the field of acute kidney injury. This organization gave birth to important classifications such as the RIFLE and the cardiorenal syndrome. Several conferences were organized in the last 10 years. Today, ADQI is a well-known initiative and it provides useful information to the physicians and nurses interested in acute kidney injury.

Concepts: Renal failure, Dialysis, Evidence-based medicine, Acute kidney injury, Management, Organization, Democracy