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Concept: Acromion

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PurposeIn this retrospective study we investigated the clinical and radiological outcome after operative treatment of acute Rockwood III-V injuries of the AC-joint using two acromioclavicular (AC) cerclages and one coracoclavicular (CC) cerclage with resorbable sutures. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2009 a total of 39 patients fit the inclusion criteria after operative treatment of acute AC joint dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction and anatomic reconstruction of the AC and CC-ligaments using PDS® sutures (Polydioxane, Ethicon, Norderstedt, Germany). Thirty-three patients could be investigated at a mean follow up of 32+/-9 months (range 24–56 months). RESULTS: The mean Constant score was 94.3+/-7.1 (range 73–100) with an age and gender correlated score of 104.2%+/-6.9 (88-123%). The DASH score (mean 3.46+/-6.6 points), the ASES score (94.6+/-9.7points) and the Visual Analogue Scale (mean 0.5+/-0,6) revealed a good to excellent clinical outcome. The difference in the coracoclavicular distance compared to the contralateral side was <5 mm for 28 patients, between 5-10 mm for 4 patients, and more than 10 mm for another patient. In the axial view, the anterior border of the clavicle was within 1 cm (ventral-dorsal direction) of the anterior rim of the acromion in 28 patients (85%). Re-dislocations occured in three patients (9%). CONCLUSION: Open AC joint reconstruction using AC and CC PDS cerclages provides good to excellent clinical results in the majority of cases. However, radiographically, the CC distance increased significantly at final follow up, but neither the amount of re-dislocation nor calcifications of the CC ligaments or osteoarthritis of the AC joint had significant influence on the outcome.Level of evidenceCase series, Level IV.

Concepts: Osteoarthritis, Joint, Joints, Ligament, Joint dislocation, Clavicle, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromion

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The scapula functions as a bridge between the shoulder complex and the cervical spine and plays a very important role in providing both mobility and stability of the neck/shoulder region. The association between abnormal scapular positions and motions and glenohumeral joint pathology has been well established in the literature, whereas studies investigating the relationship between neck pain and scapular dysfunction have only recently begun to emerge. Although several authors have emphasised the relevance of restoring normal scapular kinematics through exercise and manual therapy techniques, overall scapular rehabilitation guidelines decent for both patients with shoulder pain as well as patients with neck problems are lacking. The purpose of this paper is to provide a science-based clinical reasoning algorithm with practical guidelines for the rehabilitation of scapular dyskinesis in patients with chronic complaints in the upper quadrant.

Concepts: Vertebral column, Shoulder, Cervical vertebrae, Glenohumeral joint, Scapula, Acromion

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The deltoid is a fascinating muscle with a significant role in shoulder function. It is comprised of three distinct portions (anterior or clavicular, middle or acromial, and posterior or spinal) and acts mainly as an abductor of the shoulder and stabilizer of the humeral head. Deltoid tears are not infrequently associated with large or massive rotator cuff tears and may further jeopardize shoulder function. A variety of other pathologies may affect the deltoid muscle including enthesitis, calcific tendinitis, myositis, infection, tumors, and chronic avulsion injury. Contracture of the deltoid following repeated intramuscular injections could present with progressive abduction deformity and winging of the scapula. The deltoid muscle and its innervating axillary nerve may be injured during shoulder surgery, which may have disastrous functional consequences. Axillary neuropathies leading to deltoid muscle dysfunction include traumatic injuries, quadrilateral space and Parsonage-Turner syndromes, and cause denervation of the deltoid muscle. Finally, abnormalities of the deltoid may originate from nearby pathologies of subdeltoid bursa, acromion, and distal clavicle.

Concepts: Humerus, Shoulder, Rotator cuff, Deltoid muscle, Axillary nerve, Clavicle, Scapula, Acromion

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INTRODUCTION: Following an increase in the incidence of scapular fractures and interest in the outcome of their treatment, a basic classification system was developed for ease of use in the emergency setting. It has been expanded to a comprehensive system to allow for more in-depth classification of scapular fractures for clinical research and surgical decision making. It focusses on three specific regions of the scapula: the scapular body, the glenoid fossa and the lateral scapular suspension system (LSSS). This article presents a classification of the LSSS involvement to better characterise the injuries of this region and to emphasise its relevance to evaluation of the position of the scapula, hence the glenoid fossa, and so the centre of rotation of the shoulder joint. METHODS: An iterative consensus and evaluation process comprising an international group of seven experienced shoulder specialist and orthopaedic trauma surgeons was used to specify and evaluate the failure of the LSSS associated with scapula fractures. This was supported by a series of agreement studies. The system considered lack of involvement (S0), incomplete (S1) and complete (S2) failure of the LSSS. The last evaluation was conducted on a consecutive collection of 120 scapula fractures documented by three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) reconstruction videos. RESULTS: Surgeons agreed on the involvement/failure of the LSSS in 47% of the 120 cases with an overall Kappa of 0.54. The sample most likely included 70 S0, 29 S1 and 21 S2 cases, where surgeons showed median classification accuracies of 93%, 71% and 80% for these categories, respectively. While two surgeons showed some uncertainty about their classification, the remaining surgeons only failed to identify LSSS failure in <20% of the cases. Kappa coefficients of reliability for classification of incomplete and complete LSSS involvement according to subcategories were 0.85 and 0.82, respectively. CONCLUSION: While LSSS involvement can be reliably identified, its characterisation regarding complexity is problematic even with 3D CT images. The proposed LSSS system is considered clinically relevant and sufficient to further assess its role in treatment-decision processes and outcome prognosis.

Concepts: Failure, Shoulder, Reliability engineering, Scapula, Acromion, Glenoid cavity

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We describe our experience with a new system of patient-specific template called Personal Fit(®), which is unique in shoulder surgery and used in combination with Duocentric(®) prosthesis. The reverse prosthesis’s concept is the invention of Paul Grammont, developed with Grammont’s team of Dijon University as from 1981, which led to the first reversed total shoulder prosthesis called Trumpet in 1985. The Duocentric(®) prosthesis developed in 2001 is the third-generation prosthesis, coming from the Trumpet and the second-generation prosthesis Delta(®) (DePuy). This prosthesis provides a novel solution to the notching problem with an inferior overhang integrated onto the glenoid baseplate. Personal Fit(®) system is based on reconstructing the shoulder joint bones in three dimensions using CT scan data, placing a landmark on the scapula and locating points on the glenoid and humerus. That will be used as a reference for the patient-specific templates. We study the glenoid position planned with Personal Fit(®) software relative to native glenoid position in 30 cases. On average, the difference between the planned retroversion (or anteversion in one case) and native retroversion was 8.6°.

Concepts: Humerus, Joint, Shoulder, Rotator cuff, Deltoid muscle, Scapula, Acromion, Glenoid cavity

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: Malformation and hypoplasia of the clavicle can result in pain, impaired function, restricted shoulder movement, subjective feeling of instability, and cosmetic deformity. There are no reports of clavicle lengthening by osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis (DO).

Concepts: Shoulder, Clavicle, Acromion

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INTRODUCTION: Numerous static and dynamic techniques have been described for the management of acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation. To date, no standard technique has been established and several complications have been described for each of these techniques. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the functional and radiographic outcomes of acute AC joint reconstruction after a mini-open technique using the double-button fixation system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with acute AC joint dislocation treated with the double-button fixation system by one surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. Functional assessment was performed by an independent reviewer using the DASH, Constant and the VAS scores. The coracoclavicular (CC) distance of the affected shoulder was assessed on a standard radiograph and compared with the contralateral normal one. RESULTS: Eight patients were operated on for grade III AC joint dislocation and 4 for grade IV. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 27.5 years. The mean follow-up was 18.25 months (range: 12-30 months). At the most recent follow-up, the mean Constant score was 94.8 (range: 84-100) showing a significant increase compared with the mean pre-operative value of 34.4 (range: 25-52) (p<0.001). The mean DASH score was significantly decreased from 19.6 (range: 14-28) preoperatively to 0.25 (range: 0-3) at the last follow-up (p<0.001). The mean VAS score showed a significant decrease from 5.75 (range: 4-7) to 0.2 (range: 0-2) (p<0.001). The mean CC distance on the operated shoulder was found to have no significant difference from the CC distance on the contralateral normal side (10.5 vs. 10mm) (p>0.05). There was no evidence of AC joint osteoarthrosis, CC calcification or osteolysis of the distal clavicle or the coracoid process. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed mini-open technique provides adequate exposure of the base of the coracoid with minimal damage to the soft tissues surrounding the CC ligaments while ensures an excellent cosmetic result. We recommend this fast and relatively simple technique for all type IV injuries and for type III injuries in heavy manual workers and high-demand upper extremities athletes.

Concepts: Synovial joint, Joints, Shoulder, Upper limb anatomy, Clavicle, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromion, Acromioclavicular ligament

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Stabilizing the acromioclavicular joint in the vertical and horizontal planes is challenging, and most current techniques do not reliably achieve this goal. The BiPOD repair is an arthroscopically assisted procedure performed with image intensifier guidance that reconstructs the coracoclavicular ligaments as well as the acromioclavicular ligaments to achieve bidirectional stability. Repair is achieved with a combination of 2-mm FiberTape (Arthrex, Naples, Florida) and 20-mm Poly-Tape (Neoligaments, Leeds, England) to achieve rigid repair, prevent bone abrasion, and promote tissue ingrowth. This study is a prospective review of the first 6 patients treated for high-grade acute acromioclavicular injury with the BiPOD technique. The study included 6 men who were 21 to 36 years old (mean, 27 years). At 6-month follow-up, complications were recorded and radiographic analysis was used to determine the coracoclavicular distance for vertical reduction and the amount of acromioclavicular translation on the Alexander axillary view was used to determine horizontal reduction. One patient had a superficial infection over the tape knot. The difference in coracoclavicular distance between the operated side and the uninvolved side was 9±2 mm preoperatively and 0.3±2 mm at 6-month follow-up. On Alexander axillary view, all 6 patients showed stable reduction, which is defined as a clavicle that is in line with the acromion. The findings show that BiPOD acromioclavicular reconstruction restores bidirectional stability of the acromioclavicular joint at 6 months. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):exx-exx.].

Concepts: Bone, Joint, Orthopedic surgery, Horizontal plane, Clavicle, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromion, Acromioclavicular ligament

9

Shoulder problems are highly prevalent among elite handball players. Reduced glenohumeral rotation, external rotation weakness and scapula dyskinesis have been identified as risk factors.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical statistics, The Canon of Medicine, Injuries, Shoulder, Shoulder problems, Scapula, Acromion

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Background and purpose - Shoulder impingement syndrome is common, but treatment is controversial. Arthroscopic acromioplasty is popular even though its efficacy is unknown. In this study, we analyzed stage-II shoulder impingement patients in subgroups to identify those who would benefit from the operation. Patients and methods - In a previous randomized study, 140 patients were either treated with a supervised exercise program or with arthroscopic acromioplasty followed by a similar exercise program. The patients were followed up at 2 and 5 years after randomization. Self-reported pain was used as the primary outcome measure. Results - Both treatment groups had less pain at 2 and 5 years, and this was similar in both groups. Duration of symptoms, marital status (single), long periods of sick leave, and lack of professional education appeared to increase the risk of persistent pain despite the treatment. Patients with impingement with radiological acromioclavicular (AC) joint degeneration also had more pain. The patients in the exercise group who later wanted operative treatment and had it did not get better after the operation. Interpretation - The natural course probably plays a substantial role in the outcome. Based on our findings, it is difficult to recommend arthroscopic acromioplasty for any specific subgroup. Regarding operative treatment, however, a concomitant AC joint resection might be recommended if there are signs of AC joint degeneration. Even more challenging for the development of a treatment algorithm is the finding that patients who do not recover after nonoperative treatment should not be operated either.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Group theory, Synovial joint, Subgroup, Clavicle, Acromion