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Concept: Acromioclavicular ligament


The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of 37 consecutive patients (Ø age 37.9; 4♀, 33♂) following arthroscopically assisted and image intensifier-controlled AC joint reconstruction using the double TightRope™ technique for acute AC joint separations grade V according to Rockwood.

Concepts: Synovial joint, Joints, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromioclavicular ligament


Acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations indicated for surgery can be treated with several stabilization techniques. This in vitro study evaluated the acromioclavicular joint stability after 3 types of validated repair techniques compared with the native situation.

Concepts: Synovial joint, Joints, Joint dislocation, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromioclavicular ligament


INTRODUCTION: Numerous static and dynamic techniques have been described for the management of acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation. To date, no standard technique has been established and several complications have been described for each of these techniques. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the functional and radiographic outcomes of acute AC joint reconstruction after a mini-open technique using the double-button fixation system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with acute AC joint dislocation treated with the double-button fixation system by one surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. Functional assessment was performed by an independent reviewer using the DASH, Constant and the VAS scores. The coracoclavicular (CC) distance of the affected shoulder was assessed on a standard radiograph and compared with the contralateral normal one. RESULTS: Eight patients were operated on for grade III AC joint dislocation and 4 for grade IV. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 27.5 years. The mean follow-up was 18.25 months (range: 12-30 months). At the most recent follow-up, the mean Constant score was 94.8 (range: 84-100) showing a significant increase compared with the mean pre-operative value of 34.4 (range: 25-52) (p<0.001). The mean DASH score was significantly decreased from 19.6 (range: 14-28) preoperatively to 0.25 (range: 0-3) at the last follow-up (p<0.001). The mean VAS score showed a significant decrease from 5.75 (range: 4-7) to 0.2 (range: 0-2) (p<0.001). The mean CC distance on the operated shoulder was found to have no significant difference from the CC distance on the contralateral normal side (10.5 vs. 10mm) (p>0.05). There was no evidence of AC joint osteoarthrosis, CC calcification or osteolysis of the distal clavicle or the coracoid process. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed mini-open technique provides adequate exposure of the base of the coracoid with minimal damage to the soft tissues surrounding the CC ligaments while ensures an excellent cosmetic result. We recommend this fast and relatively simple technique for all type IV injuries and for type III injuries in heavy manual workers and high-demand upper extremities athletes.

Concepts: Synovial joint, Joints, Shoulder, Upper limb anatomy, Clavicle, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromion, Acromioclavicular ligament


To report functional and objective outcomes resulting from surgical treatment of patients with symptomatic type III through V acromioclavicular (AC) joint injury by use of a modification of the anatomic AC joint reconstruction developed by Carofino and Mazzocca.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Physician, Synovial joint, Joints, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromioclavicular ligament


Stabilizing the acromioclavicular joint in the vertical and horizontal planes is challenging, and most current techniques do not reliably achieve this goal. The BiPOD repair is an arthroscopically assisted procedure performed with image intensifier guidance that reconstructs the coracoclavicular ligaments as well as the acromioclavicular ligaments to achieve bidirectional stability. Repair is achieved with a combination of 2-mm FiberTape (Arthrex, Naples, Florida) and 20-mm Poly-Tape (Neoligaments, Leeds, England) to achieve rigid repair, prevent bone abrasion, and promote tissue ingrowth. This study is a prospective review of the first 6 patients treated for high-grade acute acromioclavicular injury with the BiPOD technique. The study included 6 men who were 21 to 36 years old (mean, 27 years). At 6-month follow-up, complications were recorded and radiographic analysis was used to determine the coracoclavicular distance for vertical reduction and the amount of acromioclavicular translation on the Alexander axillary view was used to determine horizontal reduction. One patient had a superficial infection over the tape knot. The difference in coracoclavicular distance between the operated side and the uninvolved side was 9±2 mm preoperatively and 0.3±2 mm at 6-month follow-up. On Alexander axillary view, all 6 patients showed stable reduction, which is defined as a clavicle that is in line with the acromion. The findings show that BiPOD acromioclavicular reconstruction restores bidirectional stability of the acromioclavicular joint at 6 months. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):exx-exx.].

Concepts: Bone, Joint, Orthopedic surgery, Horizontal plane, Clavicle, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromion, Acromioclavicular ligament



The management of acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries depends on the degree of injury diagnosed by the Rockwood classification. Inadequate imaging and not selecting the most helpful imaging protocols can often lead to incorrect diagnosis of the injury. A consensus on a diagnostic imaging protocol for acute AC joint injuries does not currently exist. Therefore we conducted a systematic review of the literature considering three diagnostic parameters for patients with acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries: 1) Assessment of vertical instability; 2) Assessment of horizontal instability; 3) Benefit of weighted panoramic views.

Concepts: Medical terms, Diagnosis, Injuries, Injury, Synovial joint, Joints, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromioclavicular ligament


The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes of arthroscopic TightRope® fixation with that of hook plate fixation in patients with acute unstable acromioclavicular joint dislocations.

Concepts: Synovial joint, Joints, Joint dislocation, Acromioclavicular joint, 2007 singles, Acromioclavicular ligament


The consolidation of the acromioclavicular (AC) and coracoclavicular (CC) ligament complex after arthroscopically assisted stabilization of acute acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) separation is still under consideration.

Concepts: Synovial joint, Joints, Clavicle, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromioclavicular ligament, Ligaments of the upper limb


Hook plate fixation is widely used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. However, there are many post-operative complications affecting the effect of treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the clavicular hook plate with different hook angles as a method of treatment in AC joint dislocation, and to guide the clinical application of hook plate.

Concepts: Synovial joint, Joints, Shoulder, Upper limb anatomy, Clavicle, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromion, Acromioclavicular ligament