Concept: Acoustic resonance
Graphene has received significant attention due to its excellent mechanical properties, which has resulted in the emergence of graphene-based nano-electro-mechanical system such as nanoresonators. The nonlinear vibration of a graphene resonator and its application to mass sensing (based on nonlinear oscillation) have been poorly studied, although a graphene resonator is able to easily reach the nonlinear vibration. In this work, we have studied the nonlinear vibration of a graphene resonator driven by a geometric nonlinear effect due to an edge-clamped boundary condition using a continuum elastic model such as a plate model. We have shown that an in-plane tension can play a role in modulating the nonlinearity of a resonance for a graphene. It has been found that the detection sensitivity of a graphene resonator can be improved by using nonlinear vibration induced by an actuation force-driven geometric nonlinear effect. It is also shown that an in-plane tension can control the detection sensitivity of a graphene resonator that operates both harmonic and nonlinear oscillation regimes. Our study suggests the design principles of a graphene resonator as a mass sensor for developing a novel detection scheme using graphene-based nonlinear oscillators.
This paper reports a flexible and stretchable metamaterial-based “skin” or meta-skin with tunable frequency selective and cloaking effects in microwave frequency regime. The meta-skin is composed of an array of liquid metallic split ring resonators (SRRs) embedded in a stretchable elastomer. When stretched, the meta-skin performs as a tunable frequency selective surface with a wide resonance frequency tuning range. When wrapped around a curved dielectric material, the meta-skin functions as a flexible “cloaking” surface to significantly suppress scattering from the surface of the dielectric material along different directions. We studied frequency responses of multilayer meta-skins to stretching in a planar direction and to changing the spacing between neighboring layers in vertical direction. We also investigated scattering suppression effect of the meta-skin coated on a finite-length dielectric rod in free space. This meta-skin technology will benefit many electromagnetic applications, such as frequency tuning, shielding, and scattering suppression.
Arrays of on-chip spherical glass shells of hundreds of micrometers in diameter with ultra-smooth surfaces and sub-micrometer wall thicknesses have been fabricated and have been shown to sustain optical resonance modes with high Q-factors of greater than 50 million. The resonators exhibit temperature sensitivity of -1.8 GHz K(-1) and can be configured as ultra-high sensitivity thermal sensors for a broad range of applications. By virtue of the geometry’s strong light-matter interaction, the inner surface provides an excellent on-chip sensing platform that truly opens up the possibility for reproducible, chip scale, ultra-high sensitivity microfluidic sensor arrays. As a proof of concept we demonstrate the sensitivity of the resonance frequency as water is filled inside the microspherical shell and is allowed to evaporate. By COMSOL modeling, the dependence of this interaction on glass shell thickness is elucidated and the experimentally measured sensitivities for two different shell thicknesses are explained.
According to the international guidelines, the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) is used as a metric of basic restriction for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. It is well known that the WBA-SAR largely depends on the frequency of the incident wave for a given incident power density. The frequency at which the WBA-SAR becomes maximal is called the ‘resonance frequency’. Our previous study proposed a scheme for estimating the WBA-SAR at this resonance frequency based on an analogy between the power absorption characteristic of human models in free space and that of a dipole antenna. However, a scheme for estimating the WBA-SAR in a grounded human has not been discussed sufficiently, even though the WBA-SAR in a grounded human is larger than that in an ungrounded human. In this study, with the use of the finite-difference time-domain method, the grounded condition is confirmed to be the worst-case exposure for human body models in a standing posture. Then, WBA-SARs in grounded human models are calculated at their respective resonant frequencies. A formula for estimating the WBA-SAR of a human standing on the ground is proposed based on an analogy with a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna. First, homogenized human body models are shown to provide the conservative WBA-SAR as compared with anatomically based models. Based on the formula proposed here, the WBA-SARs in grounded human models are approximately 10% larger than those in free space. The variability of the WBA-SAR was shown to be ±30% even for humans of the same age, which is caused by the body shape.
The acoustic transmission coefficient of a resonant sonic crystal made of hollow bamboo rods is studied experimentally and theoretically. The plane wave expansion and multiple scattering theory (MST) are used to predict the bandgap in transmission coefficient of a non-resonant sonic crystal composed of rods without holes. The predicted results are validated against experimental data for the acoustic transmission coefficient. It is shown that a sonic crystal made from a natural material with some irregularities can exhibit a clear transmission bandgap. Then, the hollow bamboo rods are drilled between each node to create an array of Helmholtz resonators. It is shown that the presence of Helmholtz resonators leads to an additional bandgap in the low-frequency part of the transmission coefficient. The MST is modified in order to account for the resonance effect of the holes in the drilled bamboo rods. This resonant multiple scattering theory is validated experimentally and could be further used for the description and optimization of more complex resonant sonic crystals.
- IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
- Published over 6 years ago
The piezoelectric lateral-electric-field-excited resonator based on an X-cut lithium niobate plate has been investigated. Two rectangular electrodes were applied on one side of the plate so that the lateral electric field components were parallel to the crystallographic Y-axis and excited the longitudinal wave in the gap between the electrodes. The region around the electrodes was covered with a special absorbing varnish to suppress the spurious oscillations. The effect of the absorbing coating width on the resonant frequency and Q-factor of the lateral field-excited resonator was studied in detail with the series and parallel resonances for different width of the gap between the electrodes. As a result, we found experimentally the parameter regions of pure resonances and the boundaries of value variation for resonance frequency, Q-factor, and effective electromechanical coupling coefficient.
Transverse-electric (TE) resonant optical tunneling through an asymmetric, single-barrier potential system consisting of all passive materials in two-dimensional (2-D) glass/silver/TiO2/air configuration is quantified at a silver thickness of 35 nm. Resonant tunneling occurs when the incident condition corresponds to the excitation of a radiation mode. Lasing-like transmission occurring at resonance is carefully qualified in terms of power conservation, resonance condition, and identification of the gain medium equivalent. In particular, effective gain (geff) and threshold gain (gth) coefficients, both of which are strong functions of the forward reflection coefficient at the silver-TiO2 interface, are analytically obtained and the angular span over which geff > gth is further verified rigorously electromagnetically. The results show that the present configuration may be treated as a cascade of the gain equivalent (i.e. the silver film) and the TiO2 resonator that is of Fabry-Perot type, giving rise to negative gth when resonant tunneling occurs. The transmittance spectrum exhibiting a gain-curve-like envelope is shown to be a direct consequence of the competition of the resonator loss at the silver-TiO2 interface and the forward tunneling probability through the silver barrier, all controlled by the effective silver barrier thickness.
The effect of a thin layer with the finite surface conductivity located near the lateral electric field excited resonator on its characteristics is studied theoretically and experimentally. It has been shown that for the fixed distance between the free side of the resonator and conducting layer with increasing the surface conductivity of the layer the resonant frequency of the parallel resonance remains initially practically constant, then sharply decreases in a certain range and then insignificantly changes. For the fixed value of the layer conductivity the parallel resonant frequency increases at the increase in the gap between the resonator and layer and then achieves the saturation. The maximum change in the frequency of the parallel resonance corresponds to a zero gap when the layer conductivity varies over the wide range is equal to ∼1%. The frequency of the series resonance decreases only by ∼0.08% due to the change in the layer conductivity. The obtained results may be useful for the development of the gas sensors based on the lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator conjugated to the gas sensitive film, the conductivity of which changes in the presence of the given gas.
The influence of the width of the gap between the free side of the piezoelectric lateral electric field excited resonator and the metal film placed on the dielectric plate on the frequencies of the parallel and series resonances was experimentally and theoretically studied. The measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 14-45 °C. It has been shown that the change of the gap width from 0 up to 3.5 mm leads to the change of the parallel resonant frequency on 1.3% at the constant temperature. At the same conditions the change of the series resonant frequency does not exceed 0.07%. Theoretical analysis quantitatively confirmed the experimental dependencies of the aforementioned frequencies on the gap width at the room temperature. At that the maximum difference between the theoretical and experimental values of the parallel and series resonant frequencies in all cases does not exceed 1.2%. The obtained results may be used as the basis for the development of the sensors for the measurement of the displacement in the interval of 0.2-2 mm in the temperature range of 15-45 °C.
Mechanical resonators are promising systems for storing and manipulating information. To transfer information between mechanical modes, either direct coupling or an interface between these modes is needed. In previous works, strong coupling between different modes in a single mechanical resonator and direct interaction between neighboring mechanical resonators have been demonstrated. However, coupling between distant mechanical resonators, which is a crucial request for long-distance classical and quantum information processing using mechanical devices, remains an experimental challenge. Here, we report the experimental observation of strong indirect coupling between separated mechanical resonators in a graphene-based electromechanical system. The coupling is mediated by a far-off-resonant phonon cavity through virtual excitations via a Raman-like process. By controlling the resonant frequency of the phonon cavity, the indirect coupling can be tuned in a wide range. Our results may lead to the development of gate-controlled all-mechanical devices and open up the possibility of long-distance quantum mechanical experiments.