Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Access control


This paper presents an innovative access control system, based on human detection and path analysis, to reduce false automatic door system actions while increasing the added values for security applications. The proposed system can first identify a person from the scene, and track his trajectory to predict his intention for accessing the entrance, and finally activate the door accordingly. The experimental results show that the proposed system has the advantages of high precision, safety, reliability, and can be responsive to demands, while preserving the benefits of being low cost and high added value.

Concepts: Scientific method, Value added, Access control, Physical security, Door, Door security, Safe, Security companies


Biometric recognition is currently implemented in several authentication contexts, most recently in mobile devices where it is expected to complement or even replace traditional authentication modalities such as PIN (Personal Identification Number) or passwords. The assumed convenience characteristics of biometrics are transparency, reliability and ease-of-use, however, the question of whether biometric recognition is as intuitive and straightforward to use is open to debate. Can biometric systems make some tasks easier for people with accessibility concerns? To investigate this question, an accessibility evaluation of a mobile app was conducted where test subjects withdraw money from a fictitious ATM (Automated Teller Machine) scenario. The biometric authentication mechanisms used include face, voice, and fingerprint. Furthermore, we employed traditional modalities of PIN and pattern in order to check if biometric recognition is indeed a real improvement. The trial test subjects within this work were people with real-life accessibility concerns. A group of people without accessibility concerns also participated, providing a baseline performance. Experimental results are presented concerning performance, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) and accessibility, grouped according to category of accessibility concern. Our results reveal links between individual modalities and user category establishing guidelines for future accessible biometric products.

Concepts: Authentication, Access control, Personal identification number, Password, Biometrics, Biometrics in schools, Fingerprint recognition, Automated teller machine


Recently, Chen et al. have proposed a novel tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system, published in the Journal of Medical Systems. In this paper we consider the security of the proposed protocol and identify some existing weaknesses. The main attack is a reader impersonation attack which allows an active adversary to impersonate a legitimate doctor, e.g. the patient’s doctor, to access the patient’s tag and change the patient prescription. The presented attack is quite efficient. To impersonate a doctor, the adversary should eavesdrop one session between the doctor and the patient’s tag and then she can impersonate the doctor with the success probability of ‘1’. In addition, we present efficient reader-tag to back-end database impersonation, de-synchronization and traceability attacks against the protocol. Finally, we propose an improved version of protocol which is more efficient compared to the original protocol while provides the desired security against the presented attacks.

Concepts: English-language films, Security, Authentication, Access control, Physical security, Smart card, Authorization, Burglar alarm


The secondary use of health data for research raises complex questions of privacy and governance. Such questions are ill-suited to opinion polling where citizens must choose quickly between multiple-choice answers based on little information.

Concepts: Health care provider, Patient, Illness, Law, Management, Systems theory, Deliberative democracy, Access control


With the development of Internet, patients could enjoy health-care delivery services through telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) in their home. To control the access to remote medical servers' resources, many authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed. However, the performance of these schemes is not satisfactory since modular exponential operations are used in these schemes. In the paper, we propose a chaotic map-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems. The security and performance analysis shows our scheme is more suitable for TMIS.

Concepts: Medicine, Health, Physician, Illness, Health science, Access control, Physical security, Computer security


Security biometrics is a secure alternative to traditional methods of identity verification of individuals, such as authentication systems based on user name and password. Recently, it has been found that the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal formed by five successive waves (P, Q, R, S and T) is unique to each individual. In fact, better than any other biometrics' measures, it delivers proof of subject’s being alive as extra information which other biometrics cannot deliver. The main purpose of this work is to present a low-cost method for online acquisition and processing of ECG signals for person authentication and to study the possibility of providing additional information and retrieve personal data from an electrocardiogram signal to yield a reliable decision. This study explores the effectiveness of a novel biometric system resulting from the fusion of information and knowledge provided by ECG and EMG (Electromyogram) physiological recordings. It is shown that biometrics based on these ECG/EMG signals offers a novel way to robustly authenticate subjects. Five ECG databases (MIT-BIH, ST-T, NSR, PTB and ECG-ID) and several ECG signals collected in-house from volunteers were exploited. A palm-based ECG biometric system was developed where the signals are collected from the palm of the subject through a minimally intrusive one-lead ECG set-up. A total of 3750 ECG beats were used in this work. Feature extraction was performed on ECG signals using Fourier descriptors (spectral coefficients). Optimum-Path Forest classifier was used to calculate the degree of similarity between individuals. The obtained results from the proposed approach look promising for individuals' authentication.

Concepts: Person, Electromyography, Access control, Password, Biometrics, Biometric passport


In parallel with massive genomic data production, data sharing practices have rapidly expanded over the last decade. To ensure authorized access to data, access review by data access committees (DACs) has been utilized as one potential solution. Here we discuss core elements to be integrated into the fabric of access review by both established and emerging DACs in order to foster fair, efficient, and responsible access to datasets. We particularly highlight the fact that the access review process could be adversely influenced by the potential conflicts of interest of data producers, particularly when they are directly involved in DACs management. Therefore, in structuring DACs and access procedures, possible data withholding by data producers should receive thorough attention.

Concepts: Scientific method, Biology, Environmental science, Access control, Data sharing


Patients on hemodialysis have high 30-day unplanned readmission rates. Using a national all-payer administrative database, we describe the epidemiology of 30-day unplanned readmissions in patients on hemodialysis, determine concordance of reasons for initial admission and readmission, and identify predictors for readmission.

Concepts: Illness, Access control


Computer keyboard is one of the most common, reliable, accessible and effective approaches used for human-machine interfacing and information exchange. Although keyboard has been used for hundreds of years for advancing human civilization, studying human behavior by keystroke dynamics using smart keyboard remains a great challenge. Here we report a self-powered, non-mechanical-punching keyboard enabled by contact electrification between human fingers and keys, which converts mechanical stimuli applied onto the keyboard into local electronic signals without applying an external power. The intelligent keyboard (IKB) can not only sensitively trigger a wireless alarm system once gentle finger tapping occurs but also be capable of tracing and recording typing contents by detecting both the dynamic time intervals between and during inputting letters and the force used for each typing action. Such features promise its use as a smart security system that can realize detection, alert, recording, and identification. Moreover, the IKB is able to identify personal characteristics from different individuals if assisted by behavioral biometric of keystroke dynamics. Furthermore, the IKB can effectively harness typing motions for electricity to charge commercial electronics at arbitrary typing speed larger than 100 characters per min. Given the above features, the IKB can be potentially applied not only to self-powered electronics but also to artificial intelligence, cyber security, and computer or network access control.

Concepts: Psychology, Artificial intelligence, Computer, Behavior, Human behavior, Finger, Access control, Physical security


Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are a harm reduction strategy for people with severe alcohol dependence and unstable housing. MAPs provide controlled access to alcohol usually alongside accommodation, meals, and other supports. Patterns of alcohol consumption and related harms among MAP participants and controls from a homeless shelter in Thunder Bay, Ontario, were investigated in 2013.

Concepts: Alcohol, Carbon dioxide, Alcoholism, Carbon, Alcohol abuse, Map, Drinking culture, Access control