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Concept: Abnormal respiration


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported to be a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Although the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is the most commonly used measure of OSA, other less well studied OSA-related variables may be more pathophysiologically relevant and offer better prediction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OSA-related variables and risk of CV events.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Actuarial science, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Cultural studies, Hypopnea, Abnormal respiration, Medical conditions related to obesity


OBJETIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of adenotonsillectomy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children by respiratory polygraphy (RP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study was conducted on children referred with clinical suspicion of OSAHS. A clinical history was taken and a general physical and ENT examination was performed on all patients. RP was performed before adenotonsillectomy and six months afterwards. Patients with craniofacial syndromes, neuromuscular disorders, and severe concomitant disease were excluded. RESULTS: We studied 150 children (67. 8% male), with a mean age of 3.74±1.80 years and a BMI of 41.70±31.75. A diagnosis of OSAHS was made if the total number of respiratory events, apneas and hypopneas, divided by the total study time (RDI) was > 4.6, using RP before undergoing adenotonsillectomy. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was 15.18±11.11, with 58.7% (88) of with severe OSAHS (RDI>10). There was a significant improvement in all clinical and polygraphic variables six months after adenotonsillectomy. The residual OSAHS was 14%. The preoperative RDI was significantly associated with persistent disease (P=.042). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory polygraphy is useful for monitoring the efficacy of surgical treatment by adenotonsillectomy in children with OSAHS.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Sleep disorder, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Hypopnea, Abnormal respiration, Apnea, Sleep disorders


The exact underlying pathomechanism of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR) is still unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between cerebral white matter changes and CSA. A dysfunction of central respiratory control centers in the brainstem was suggested by some authors. Novel MR-imaging analysis tools now allow far more subtle assessment of microstructural cerebral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what severity of subtle structural cerebral changes could lead to CSA-CSR, and whether there is a specific pattern of neurodegenerative changes that cause CSR. Therefore, we examined patients with Fabry disease (FD), an inherited, lysosomal storage disease. White matter lesions are early and frequent findings in FD. Thus, FD can serve as a “model disease” of cerebral microangiopathy to study in more detail the impact of cerebral lesions on central sleep apnea.

Concepts: Respiratory physiology, Lysosomal storage disease, Sleep, White matter, Sleep apnea, Abnormal respiration, Apnea, Respiration


macronutrient intake has been found to affect sleep parameters including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in experimental studies, but there is uncertainty at the population level in adults.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Hypopnea, Abnormal respiration, Sudden infant death syndrome


The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline to present the evidence and provide clinical recommendations on the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults.

Concepts: Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Abnormal respiration


Childhood asthma and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), both disorders of airway inflammation, were associated in recent observational studies. Although childhood OSA is effectively treated by adenotonsillectomy (AT), it remains unclear whether AT also improves childhood asthma. We hypothesized that AT, the first line of therapy for childhood OSA, would be associated with improved asthma outcomes and would reduce the usage of asthma therapies in children.

Concepts: Scientific method, Improve, Obesity, Observational study, Therapy, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Abnormal respiration


This study aims to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients receiving a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to treat obstructive sleep apnea using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). In addition, it also aims to assess the development of posterior open bite (POB).

Concepts: Medical terms, Diagnosis, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Abnormal respiration, Sleep disorders, Temporomandibular joint disorder, Mandibular advancement splint


Obstructive sleep apnea is a chronic disorder resulting from upper airway collapse during sleep. It is linked to a variety of health and safety risks but can often be effectively treated. This article provides an overview of the disorder, including an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and management.

Concepts: Medicine, Chronic, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Abnormal respiration, Occupational safety and health


Postsurgical changes of the airway have become a great point of interest and often have been reported to be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea after mandibular setback surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional volumetric changes in the upper airway space of patients who underwent bimaxillary surgery to correct Class III malocclusions.

Concepts: Dimension, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Abnormal respiration


Unilateral sleep in marine mammals has been considered as a defence against airway obstruction, as a sentinel for pod maintenance, and as a thermoregulatory mechanism. Birds also show asymmetric sleep, probably to avoid predation. The variable function of asymmetric sleep suggests a general capability for independence between brain hemispheres. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea share similar problems with diving mammals, but their eventual sleep asymmetry received little attention. The present report shows that human sleep apnea patients also present temporary interhemispheric variations in dominance during sleep, with significant differences when comparing periods of open and closed airways. The Magnitude of Squared Coherence, an index of interhemispheric EEG interdependence in phase and amplitude rises in the delta EEG range during apneic episodes, while the Phase Lag Index, a measure of linear and non-linear interhemispheric phase synchrony, drops to zero. The L index, which measures generalized nonlinear EEG interhemispheric synchronization, increases during apneic events. Thus, the three indexes show significant and congruent changes in interhemispheric symmetry depending on the state of the airways. In conclusion, when confronted with a respiratory challenge, sleeping humans undergo small but significant breathing-related oscillations in interhemispheric dominance, similar to those observed in marine mammals. The evidence points to a relation between cetacean unihemispheric sleep and their respiratory challenges.

Concepts: Human, Sleep, Cerebrum, Sleep apnea, Polysomnography, Obstructive sleep apnea, Abnormal respiration, Apnea