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Concept: Abdominal pain

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INTRODUCTION: Although blunt trauma to a hernia-containing bowel is known to cause bowel perforation, this report documents the first incident of a small bowel transection following a non-traumatic event. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 49-year-old African American man with a chronic incarcerated inguinal hernia awaiting elective repair. He presented to the Emergency Department with abdominal pain following an episode of coughing. On examination, he was found to have peritonitis. He underwent exploratory laparotomy, and had a complete small bowel transection. A bowel resection with primary anastomosis was performed, as well an inguinal hernia repair. CONCLUSION: Chronic hernia incarceration can lead to weakening and ischemia of the bowel, and minimal trauma can lead to perforation of the weakened segment. In such presentations, bowel resection and repair of the defect with a biological material is safe and feasible.

Concepts: Asthma, Surgery, Abdominal pain, Inguinal hernia, Hernia, Bowel obstruction, African American, Gastrointestinal perforation

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Midgut malrotation is an anomaly of intestinal rotation that occurs during fetal development and usually presents in the neonatal period. We present a rare case of malrotation in a 14-year-old patient who presented with cramping, generalized right abdominal pain, and vomiting for a duration of one day. A computed tomography abdominal scan and upper gastrointestinal contrast studies showed malrotation of the small bowel without volvulus. Laparoscopy revealed typical Ladd’s bands and a distended flabby third and fourth duodenal portion extrinsically obstructing the misplaced duodeno-jejunal junction. The Ladd procedure, including widening of the mesenteric base and appendectomy, was performed. Symptoms completely resolved in a half-year follow up period. Patients with midgut malrotation may present with vague abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, or intestinal ischemia. The laparoscopic Ladd procedure is feasible and safe, and it appears to be as effective as the standard open Ladd procedure in the diagnosis and treatment of teenage or adult patients with intestinal malrotation.

Concepts: Abdominal pain, Small intestine, Bowel obstruction, Abdomen, Jejunum, Volvulus, Intestinal malrotation, Ladd's bands

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A 62-year-old female with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; also von Recklinghausen’s disease) was diagnosed with a giant, thick-walled tubular mass, mainly located in the right abdominal area on computed tomography, following an examination for intermittent abdominal pain and increasing abdominal distension. According to the clinical manifestations and imaging features, the giant tubular mass was considered most likely to be a dilated fallopian tube associated with infection, while the possibility of obstructed bowel loops was excluded. However, the subsequent laparotomy revealed a giant appendix, caused by a large neurofibroma in the root region of the appendix, which occluded the lumen. Neurofibroma of the appendix is extremely rare, even in patients with NF1. To the best of our knowledge, only three such cases have previously been reported in the English literature to date.

Concepts: Neurology, Abdominal pain, Bowel obstruction, Neurofibromatosis type I, Neurofibromatosis, Abdominal distension, Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen, Café au lait spot

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The efficacy and safety of vedolizumab, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody against the integrin α4β7, was demonstrated in multicenter, phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease. We analyzed data from 1 of these trials to determine the effects of vedolizumab therapy in patients with UC, based on past exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents.

Concepts: Monoclonal antibodies, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Colitis, Infliximab, Abdominal pain, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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A 38-year-old man presented with worsening abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia, generalized weakness, and weight loss that had begun 3 days earlier. He had a history of eating raw beef. Examination of stool showed an embryonated egg containing an oncosphere.

Concepts: Symptoms, Abdominal pain, Mammal, Appetite, Taenia saginata, Taenia

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In 2009, an estimated 565,000 Americans had Crohn’s disease (1), an inflammatory bowel disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms include persistent diarrhea, abdominal cramps and pain, constipation leading to bowel obstruction, and rectal bleeding.* Symptoms sometimes intensify in severity and require hospitalization and surgeries of the small intestine, colon, or rectum (2). Hospital discharge data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) were used to estimate U.S. hospitalizations(†) for Crohn’s disease as both the first-listed and any-listed(§) discharge diagnosis and common surgical procedures during hospitalizations with Crohn’s disease as first-listed diagnosis from 2003 to 2013, the most recent decade of data. Despite new therapies that were expected to improve remission and reduce hospitalizations, estimated numbers (and age-adjusted rates per 100,000 U.S. population) of hospitalizations for Crohn’s disease as the first-listed diagnosis did not change significantly from 2003 to 2013. The proportion of these hospitalizations during which small bowel resection was performed decreased from 4.9% in 2003 to 3.9% in 2013 (p<0.05); however, colorectal resection and fistula repair rates remained stable. Hospital stays for any-listed Crohn's disease increased from >120,000 (44.2 per 100,000) in 2003 to >196,000 (59.7 per 100,000) in 2013 (p<0.05). Patient education initiatives should focus on increasing awareness of exacerbating factors and medication compliance to prevent hospitalizations.

Concepts: Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Abdominal pain, Large intestine, Gastroenterology, Small intestine, Bowel obstruction

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IBS is a common gut disorder of uncertain pathogenesis. Among other factors, genetics and certain foods are proposed to contribute. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is a rare genetic form of disaccharide malabsorption characterised by diarrhoea, abdominal pain and bloating, which are features common to IBS. We tested sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene variants for their potential relevance in IBS.

Concepts: Genetics, Bacteria, Abdominal pain, Gastroenterology, Irritable bowel syndrome, Coeliac disease, Malabsorption, Sucrose intolerance

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: Several polymorphisms have been identified in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, while their roles in the incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are conflicting. This meta-analysis was designed to clarify the impact of these polymorphisms on UC and CD risk.

Concepts: Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Colitis, Infliximab, Abdominal pain, Colonoscopy, Gastroenterology

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BACKGROUND: Sigmoid volvulus (SV) is the wrapping of the sigmoid colon around itself and its mesentery. The goal of this study was to investigate the diagnosis approach to 938 patients with SV treated at our institution and their clinical outcomes. METHODS: The clinical records of 938 patients with SV treated at our institution between June 1966 and January 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The mean age was 58.6 years (range 10 weeks to 98 years), and 774 patients (82.5 %) were male. A total of 210 (25.1 %) of 837 patients, who provided information on anamnesis and clinical features, had recurrent episodes of volvulus; 215 patients (25.7 %) had comorbidities, and 108 patients (12.9 %) presented with toxic or hypovolemic shock. The mean duration of symptoms was 38.7 h (range 6 h to 7 days), and the most common clinical features were abdominal pain and tenderness (827 of 837 patients, 98.8 %), distention (805 patients, 96.2 %), and obstipation (771 patients, 92.1 %). The final diagnosis was made with endoscopy in 519 patients (55.3 %), endoscopy followed by surgery in 154 patients (16.4 %) and at surgery in 265 patients (28.3 %). The correct diagnosis rate was 71.6 % based on clinical findings compared with 66.7 % based on plain X-ray films, 81.4 % based on both clinical and plain X-ray findings, and 100.0 % based on CT or MRI findings. CONCLUSIONS: Sigmoid volvulus is common in adult men. The disease is generally associated with recurrent episodes, comorbidity, and shock. SV generally presents as a large-bowel obstruction. Although plain X-rays may help with diagnosis, CT and MRI are more reliable diagnostic tools, and flexible endoscopy is always diagnostic. However, surgery is used to diagnose SV in limited situations.

Concepts: Medicine, X-ray, Diagnosis, Medical imaging, Abdominal pain, Rectum, Volvulus, Mesentery

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PURPOSE: To analyze quality of life (QOL) in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial concluding that the addition of concurrent and maintenance bevacizumab (Arm 3) to carboplatin and paclitaxel prolongs progression-free survival in front-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer compared to chemotherapy alone (Arm 1) or chemotherapy with bevacizumab in cycles 2-6 only (Arm 2). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Trial Outcome Index of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovary (FACT-O TOI) was used to assess QOL before cycles 1, 4, 7, 13, and 21; and 6 months after completing study therapy. Differences in QOL scores were assessed using a linear mixed model, adjusting for baseline score, and age. The significance level was set at 0.0167 to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: 1693 patients were queried. Arm 2 (p<0.001) and Arm 3 (p<0.001) reported lower QOL scores than those in Arm 1. The treatment differences were observed mainly at cycle 4, when the patients receiving bevacizumab (Arm 2 and Arm 3) reported 2.72 points (98.3% CI: 0.88 ~ 4.57; effect size=0.18) and 2.96 points (98.3% CI: 1.13~4.78; effect size=0.20) lower QOL respectively, than those in Arm 1. The difference in QOL scores between Arm 1 and Arm 3 remained statistically significant up to cycle 7. The percentage of patients who reported abdominal discomfort dropped over time, without significant differences among study arms. CONCLUSION: The small QOL difference observed during chemotherapy did not persist during maintenance bevacizumab.

Concepts: Oncology, Statistical significance, Abdominal pain, Ovarian cancer, Gynecology, Effect size, Multiple comparisons, Gynecologic oncology