SciCombinator

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Concept: Abdominal distension

156

A 62-year-old female with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; also von Recklinghausen’s disease) was diagnosed with a giant, thick-walled tubular mass, mainly located in the right abdominal area on computed tomography, following an examination for intermittent abdominal pain and increasing abdominal distension. According to the clinical manifestations and imaging features, the giant tubular mass was considered most likely to be a dilated fallopian tube associated with infection, while the possibility of obstructed bowel loops was excluded. However, the subsequent laparotomy revealed a giant appendix, caused by a large neurofibroma in the root region of the appendix, which occluded the lumen. Neurofibroma of the appendix is extremely rare, even in patients with NF1. To the best of our knowledge, only three such cases have previously been reported in the English literature to date.

Concepts: Café au lait spot, Abdominal distension, Neurofibromatosis, Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen, Neurology, Bowel obstruction, Abdominal pain, Neurofibromatosis type I

28

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate gas retention, abdominal symptoms and changes in girth circumference in females with bloating using an active or sham abdominal wall mechanical stimulation. METHODS: In 14 female patients, complaining of bloating (11 with irritable bowel syndrome and 3 with functional bloating according to the Rome III criteria) a gas mixture was continuously infused into the colon for 1 h (accommodation period). Abdominal perception and girth were measured. At the beginning of the 30-min period of free rectal gas evacuation (clearance period), an electromechanical device was positioned on the abdominal wall of all patients. The patients were randomly assigned to an active or a sham stimulation protocol group. Gas retention, perception and abdominal distension were measured at the end of the clearance period. RESULTS: All patients tolerated the volume (1,440 ml) of gas infused into the colon. Abdominal perception and girth measurements was similar in both groups during the accommodation period. At the end of the clearance, the perception score and the girth changes in the active and sham stimulation groups were similar (2.8 ± 2.0 vs. 1.4 ± 1.2, p = 0.2 and 4.9 ± 4.5 vs. 2.8 ± 2.3 mm, p = 0.3 active vs. sham, respectively). Furthermore, the mechanical stimulation of the abdominal wall did not significantly reduce gas retention (495 ± 101 ml vs. 566 ± 55, active vs. sham, p = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: An external mechanical massage of the abdominal wall did not improve intestinal gas transit, abdominal perception and abdominal distension in our female patients complaining of functional bloating.

Concepts: Defecation, Abdominal distension, Intestine, Abdominal pain, Constipation, Gastroenterology, Flatulence, Irritable bowel syndrome

22

Intolerance to enteral nutrition is common in critically ill adults, and may result in significant morbidity including ileus, abdominal distension, vomiting and potential aspiration events. Prokinetic agents are prescribed to improve gastric emptying. However, the efficacy and safety of these agents in critically ill patients is not well-defined. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of prokinetic agents in critically ill patients.

Concepts: Abdominal distension, Bowel obstruction, Randomized controlled trial

8

In patients with functional gut disorders, abdominal distension has been associated with descent of the diaphragm and protrusion of the anterior abdominal wall. We investigated mechanisms of abdominal distension in these patients.

Concepts: Abdominal distension, Abdomen, Human abdomen

2

Bloating is one of the most common and bothersome symptoms complained by a large proportion of patients. This symptom has been described with various definitions, such as sensation of a distended abdomen or an abdominal tension or even excessive gas in the abdomen, although bloating should probably be defined as the feeling (e.g. a subjective sensation) of increased pressure within the abdomen. It is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome, but when bloating is not part of another functional bowel or gastrointestinal disorder it is included as an independent entity in Rome III criteria named functional bloating. In terms of diagnosis, major difficulties are due to the lack of measurable parameters to assess and grade this symptom. In addition, it is still unclear to what extent the individual patient complaint of subjective bloating correlates with the objective evidence of abdominal distension. In fact, despite its clinical, social and economic relevance, bloating lacks a clear pathophysiology explanation, and an effective management endorsement, turning this common symptom into a true challenge for both patients and clinicians. Different theories on bloating etiology call into questions an increased luminal contents (gas, stools, liquid or fat) and/or an impaired abdominal empting and/or an altered intra-abdominal volume displacement (abdomino-phrenic theory) and/or an increased perception of intestinal stimuli with a subsequent use of empirical treatments (diet modifications, antibiotics and/or probiotics, prokinetic drugs, antispasmodics, gas reducing agents and tricyclic antidepressants). In this review, our aim was to review the latest knowledge on bloating physiopathology and therapeutic options trying to shed lights on those processes where a clinician could intervene to modify disease course.

Concepts: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Abdominal distension, Abdomen, Coeliac disease, Abdominal pain, Tricyclic antidepressant, Irritable bowel syndrome, Gastroenterology

0

Ectopic adrenal tissue in the ovary is a rare entity. We reported a case of ectopic adrenal tissue in borderline mucinous cystadenoma of the left ovary. A 22 year-old student presented with progressive abdomen distension associated with discomfort for 3 months. Imaging investigation was suggestive of mucinous left ovarian cyst. Left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the histopathology revealed borderline mucinous cystadenoma with an incidental finding of ectopic adrenal tissue. This is an interesting case because of its rarity and potential risk of neoplasm changes.

Concepts: Oophorectomy, Gynecology, Endocrine gland, Abdominal distension, Ovary, Pelvis, Ovarian cancer, Ovarian cyst

0

Ovarian cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer death worldwide. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and high rate of relapse and resistance following chemotherapy. In the present study, we describe simple and cost-effective method to establish primary culture from ascitic fluid and solid tumor obtained from epithelial ovarian carcinoma patient, which may provide a better tool for in vitro testing of drug sensitivity and designing individualized treatment protocol.

Concepts: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, BRCA2, Cell culture, Abdominal distension, Metastasis, Ovarian cancer, Oncology, Cancer

0

We present a 4-week-old neonate with acute onset of bloody stools and abdominal distention. Point-of-care ultrasound performed in the emergency department allowed for rapid diagnosis of a large amount of free intra-abdominal fluid, which together with the physical findings, prompted emergent operative exploration revealing chylous ascites. Although no areas of active volvulus were identified intraoperatively, findings in the case were suggestive of small bowel volvulus and deemed as the most likely etiology for this patient’s presentation. In this report, we review the relevant aspects of ultrasonography for ascites and discuss the diagnosis of chylous ascites.

Concepts: Small intestine, Abdominal distension, Ascites, Bowel obstruction

0

Splenic rupture in the neonatal period is a rare condition that can be complicated by hemorrhagic shock. The symptoms are not very specific, rendering the diagnosis difficult and often delayed; sometimes only discovered at autopsy. We report five cases diagnosed in the Rhône-Alpes region of France. From these observations and from a review of the literature, the circumstances of the occurrence, the clinical signs, and the therapeutic possibilities are discussed. In the presence of severe anemia with pallor and abdominal distension, particularly in the context of a difficult birth, an abdominal ultrasound must be urgently performed and surgical management promptly considered.

Concepts: Exsanguination, Bleeding, Medical sign, Blood, Shock, Anemia, Abdominal distension, Hypovolemia

0

A 44-year-old woman presented with 3 months' history of painless progressive abdominal distension and weight loss of more than 15 kg. Clinically a pelviabdominal mass with ascites was detected. CT scan of the pelvis and abdomen showed a subserosal leiomyoma with huge amount of ascites. Cancer Antigen (CA)-125 was 546 kU/L. Exploratory laparotomy with myomectomy was done and this was followed by dramatic improvement postoperatively.

Concepts: Puberty, Cancer, Weight, Kilogram, Abdominal distension, Mass, Abdomen, Pelvis