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Concept: Abdominal cavity


A 74-year-old man presented with back pain and collapse. A ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was successfully managed by endovascular aneurysm repair. Postoperatively, he developed gastric outlet obstruction owing to duodenal compression from the unevacuated retroperitoneal haematoma. In the absence of abdominal compartment syndrome, conservative management with gastric decompression and parenteral nutrition led to a full recovery.

Concepts: Stomach, Aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, Digestion, Abdominal cavity


Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound is considered to be a promising treatment for localized cancer in abdominal organs such as liver, pancreas, or kidney. Abdominal motion, anatomical arrangement, and required sustained sonication are the main challenges.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Liver, Organ, Small intestine, Ultrasound, Gallbladder, Organs, Abdominal cavity


Diastasis recti abdominis is a condition defined as the separation between the rectus abdominis and the linea alba, which leads to weakness in the abdominal muscles. Diastasis may be slight or severe, sometimes resulting in herniation of the abdominal viscera. Following childbirth, most women develop some extent of muscle separation in the postpartum period. However, if the diastasis recti abdominis in the postpartum period remain severe, it should be corrected to prevent concurrent abdominal hernia, strangulation or incarceration. We herein present two Korean cases of postpartum women with severe diastasis recti abdominis with abdominal hernia; it is the first report of its kind from Korea. Two women were referred to our clinic with severe abdominal bulge. Computerized tomography scan showed widening of the linea alba with abdominal hernia. The standard abdominoplasty with multiple wide longitudinal plications of the abdominal wall was performed in each patient under general anesthesia. There was no recurrence of diastasis recti abdominis or abdominal hernia during follow-up periods. The application of abdominoplasty in postpartum women with severe diastasis recti abdominis with abdominal hernia is thus considered to be an efficient management option. We hope these cases can provide a reference for the treatment of similar situations.

Concepts: Childbirth, Surgery, Postnatal, Abdomen, Abdominal cavity, Rectus abdominis muscle, Linea alba, Human abdomen


A 54-year-old African-American man presented with 2 years of progressively worsening dyspnea and anasarca. Over the past 6 months he gained 30 lbs with worsening lower extremity, abdominal wall, and scrotal edema. A recent workup for cardiac, renal, and liver disease, including two-dimensional echocardiogram, liver and renal function tests, and abdominal ultrasound, was unremarkable. He reported a 15-pack year history of smoking and quit 3 years ago. Chest radiograph at that time revealed bilateral pleural effusions that were both reportedly milky in appearance when drained by thoracenteses.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Organ, Liver function tests, Pleural effusion, Peritoneum, Thorax, Abdominal cavity


There are sparse data directly comparing the probability of renal injury in children and adults. The kidney of the child is believed to be more susceptible to blunt injury for a variety of anatomical reasons. In a large cohort we tested the hypothesis that the pediatric kidney is more susceptible to any renal injury and to higher grade injury.

Concepts: Kidney, Organ, Reptile, Abdominal cavity


BACKGROUND: A reliable and accurate estimation of liver size by physical examination is an important aspect of the clinical assessment of a patient. The scratch test uses auscultation to detect the lower liver edge by using the difference in sound transmission through the abdominal cavity over solid and hollow organs. The test is thought to be particularly useful if the abdomen is tense, distended, obese, or very tender. Although the sign is often taught to medical students and residents, the value of the technique for detecting the liver edge has become controversial. METHODS: The study was performed in two parts. In the first part, 18 patients undergoing upper abdominal ultrasound as outpatients were randomly selected and the scratch test was performed by two raters independently, followed by ultrasound (USG) as the reference standard. In the second part of the study, the two raters independently performed the scratch test on separate randomly selected patients (15 patients by rater 1, and 16 patients by rater 2), followed by USG. RESULTS: Agreement between raters on the scratch test was very high, with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.97. The agreement between the raters and the USG was 0.37 using Spearman’s rho. A Bland –Altman plot indicated that, on average, raters underestimated the distance from the right costal margin to the liver edge by only about 2.4 centimeters compared to USG. This translates into 37% and 54% of raters' estimates falling within 2 and 3 cm of USG estimates. Each unit increase in BMI increased the discrepancy between raters and USG by 0.26 cm (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: The scratch test has very high reproducibility and overall agreement between the scratch test and USG was moderate, with a spearman’s rho of 0.37. The accuracy may potentially be improved by using the point of initial sound transmission rather than the point of maximal transmission. We conclude that the scratch test deserves further investigation.

Concepts: Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, Liver, Correlation and dependence, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Covariance and correlation, Abdomen, Abdominal cavity, Rho


Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) sometimes occurs in critically ill patients following damage control surgery. The purpose of the present study was to develop a model of ACS and to evaluate its pathologic impact on liver, kidney, and lung morphology.

Concepts: Present, Time, Illness, English-language films, Modern history, Offal, Abdominal cavity, Compartment syndrome


Stent migration following endoscopic ultrasonography-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS) may sometimes be fatal because there are no adhesions between the biliary tract and stomach. To prevent stent migration and minimize the stent length in the abdominal cavity, we recently performed EUS-HGS using the technique of releasing the stent within the scope channel.

Concepts: Digestive system, Stomach, Prevention, Abdomen, Abdominal cavity


Knowledge of the morphological variations within the abdominal cavity is significant for all medical practitioners planning surgery. This report presents the rare origin of a common trunk for the right inferior phrenic artery, and superior and inferior suprarenal artery from the right renal artery. An accessory hepatic artery was found, which served as a branch of the right inferior phrenic artery. The diameter of the common trunk was 3.95 mm, and the diameters of the inferior and superior suprarenal arteries were 1.84 and 1.36 mm, respectively. The diameter of the right inferior phrenic artery was 2.55 mm. Both the embryological background and the potential clinical significance of this morphological variation are discussed. Knowledge of this common trunk and the occurrence of the accessory right hepatic artery may be of significance in diagnostic and surgical procedures.

Concepts: Kidney, Surgery, Thoracic diaphragm, Renal artery, Abdominal cavity, Arteries of the abdomen, Inferior phrenic arteries, Inferior suprarenal artery


Seatbelt use, alone and in conjunction with an airbag, is associated with lower risk of mortality, blunt abdominal trauma and kidney injury in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). However, the effect of these protective devices on risk of severe liver injury is not well characterised.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Glucose, Injuries, Peritoneum, Renin, Gallbladder, Offal, Abdominal cavity