SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Abdomen

316

The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear.

Concepts: Oncology, Nutrition, Death, Obesity, Overweight, Weight loss, Metabolic syndrome, Abdomen

314

Variation in the human fecal microbiota has previously been associated with body mass index (BMI). Although obesity is a global health burden, the accumulation of abdominal visceral fat is the specific cardio-metabolic disease risk factor. Here, we explore links between the fecal microbiota and abdominal adiposity using body composition as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a large sample of twins from the TwinsUK cohort, comparing fecal 16S rRNA diversity profiles with six adiposity measures.

Concepts: Cancer, Nutrition, Obesity, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Body mass index, 16S ribosomal RNA, Abdomen, Body shape

183

The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z-S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane.

Concepts: Electron, Insect, Arthropod, Honey bee, Abdomen, Scanning electron microscope, Bee, Apidae

168

BACKGROUND: Situs inversus totalis represents an unusual anomaly characterized by a mirror-image transposition of the abdominal and thoracic viscera. It often occurs concomitantly with other disorders that make difficult diagnosis and management of abdominal pathology. The relationship between situs inversus totalis and cancer remains unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 33-year old Guinean man with situs inversus totalis who presented with obstructive jaundice. Imaging and endoscopic modalities demonstrated a mass of distal common bile duct which biopsy identified an adenocarcinoma. The patient was successfully treated by cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy followed by adjuvant chemoradiation and he is doing well without recurrence 8 months after surgery. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of bile duct adenocarcinoma in patient with situs inversus totalis accounts as a rare coincidence. In this setting, when the tumor is resectable, surgical management should be considered without contraindication and must be preceded by a careful preoperative staging.

Concepts: Cancer, Digestive system, Liver, Hepatology, Abdomen, Thorax, Situs inversus, Gallstone

166

Midgut malrotation is an anomaly of intestinal rotation that occurs during fetal development and usually presents in the neonatal period. We present a rare case of malrotation in a 14-year-old patient who presented with cramping, generalized right abdominal pain, and vomiting for a duration of one day. A computed tomography abdominal scan and upper gastrointestinal contrast studies showed malrotation of the small bowel without volvulus. Laparoscopy revealed typical Ladd’s bands and a distended flabby third and fourth duodenal portion extrinsically obstructing the misplaced duodeno-jejunal junction. The Ladd procedure, including widening of the mesenteric base and appendectomy, was performed. Symptoms completely resolved in a half-year follow up period. Patients with midgut malrotation may present with vague abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, or intestinal ischemia. The laparoscopic Ladd procedure is feasible and safe, and it appears to be as effective as the standard open Ladd procedure in the diagnosis and treatment of teenage or adult patients with intestinal malrotation.

Concepts: Abdominal pain, Small intestine, Bowel obstruction, Abdomen, Jejunum, Volvulus, Intestinal malrotation, Ladd's bands

43

The Heimlich manoeuvre is a well-known intervention for the management of choking due to foreign body airway occlusion, but the evidence base for guidance on this topic is limited and guidelines differ. We measured pressures during abdominal thrusts in healthy volunteers. The angle at which thrusts were performed (upthrust vs circumferential) did not affect intrathoracic pressure. Self-administered abdominal thrusts produced similar pressures to those performed by another person. Chair thrusts, where the subject pushed their upper abdomen against a chair back, produced higher pressures than other manoeuvres. Both approaches should be included in basic life support teaching.

Concepts: Person, Subject, Abdomen, Thorax, First aid, Rocket, Human abdomen, Henry Heimlich

42

Study Design Cross-sectional repeated measures. Background Rehabilitation of diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA) generally aims to reduce the inter-rectus distance (IRD). We tested the hypothesis that activation of the transversus abdominis (TrA) before a curl-up would reduce IRD narrowing, with less linea alba (LA) distortion/deformation, which may allow better force transfer between sides of the abdominal wall. Objectives This study investigated behavior of the LA and IRD during curl-ups performed naturally and with preactivation of the TrA. Methods Curl-ups were performed by 26 women with DRA and 17 healthy control participants using a natural strategy (automatic curl-up) and with TrA preactivation (TrA curl-up). Ultrasound images were recorded at 2 points above the umbilicus (U point and UX point). Ultrasound measures of IRD and a novel measure of LA distortion (distortion index: average deviation of the LA from the shortest path between the recti) were compared between 3 tasks (rest, automatic curl-up, TrA curl-up), between groups, and between measurement points (analysis of variance). Results Automatic curl-up by women with DRA narrowed the IRD from resting values (mean U-point between-task difference, -1.19 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.45, -0.93; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, -0.51 cm; 95% CI: -0.69, -0.34; P<.001), but LA distortion increased (mean U-point between-task difference, 0.018; 95% CI: 0.0003, 0.041; P = .046 and mean UX-point between-task difference, 0.025; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.045; P = .02). Although TrA curl-up induced no narrowing or less IRD narrowing than automatic curl-up (mean U-point difference between TrA curl-up versus rest, -0.56 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.31; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, 0.02 cm; 95% CI: -0.22, 0.19; P = .86), LA distortion was less (mean U-point between-task difference, -0.025; 95% CI: -0.037, -0.012; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, -0.021; 95% CI: -0.038, -0.005; P = .01). Inter-rectus distance and the distortion index did not change from rest or differ between tasks for controls (P≥.55). Conclusion Narrowing of the IRD during automatic curl-up in DRA distorts the LA. The distortion index requires further validation, but findings imply that less IRD narrowing with TrA preactivation might improve force transfer between sides of the abdomen. The clinical implication is that reduced IRD narrowing by TrA contraction, which has been discouraged, may positively impact abdominal mechanics. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):580-589. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6536.

Concepts: Scientific method, Transversus abdominis muscle, Absolute deviation, Standard deviation, Abdomen, Analysis of variance, Rectus abdominis muscle, Linea alba

37

Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women’s waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women’s age and waist circumference with an index of men’s erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women’s slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women’s younger age and women’s slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men’s younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women’s slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women’s abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner’s desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Age, Obesity, Adipose tissue, Abdomen, Sexuality, Physical attractiveness, Sexual attraction

34

Systems capable of residing for prolonged periods of time in the gastric cavity have transformed our ability to diagnose and treat patients. Gastric resident systems for drug delivery, ideally need to be: ingestible, be able to change shape or swell to ensure prolonged gastric residence, have the mechanical integrity to withstand the forces associated with gastrointestinal motility, be triggerable to address any side effects, and be drug loadable and release drug over a prolonged period of time. Materials that have been primarily utilized for these applications have been largely restricted to thermoplastics and thermosets. Here we describe a novel set of materials, triggerable tough hydrogels, meeting all these requirement, supported by evaluation in a large animal model and ultimately demonstrate the potential of triggerable tough hydrogels to serve as prolonged gastric resident drug depots. Triggerable tough hydrogels may be applied in myriad of applications, including bariatric interventions, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.The use of drug delivery systems for the gastrointestinal tract has been faced with a number of drawbacks related to their prolonged use. Here, the authors develop a drug-loaded hydrogel with high strength to withstand long-term gastrointestinal motility and can be triggered to dissolve on demand.

Concepts: Time, Pharmacology, Digestive system, Animal, Human gastrointestinal tract, Abdomen, Period, Digestion

31

Blunt abdominal trauma often presents a substantial diagnostic challenge. Well-informed clinical examination can identify patients who require further diagnostic evaluation for intra-abdominal injuries after blunt abdominal trauma.

Concepts: Hospital, Medical emergencies, Injuries, Abdomen, Physical trauma, Concussion, Penetrating trauma, Abdominal trauma