Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Abbreviation


Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physico-chemical constants.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Chemistry, Fire retardant, Chlorine, Acronym and initialism, CAS registry number, Abbreviation, Abbreviations


The different versions of the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale (DBAS) have limited comparison and summary of the findings across studies. We aimed to examine which version and which subscales had better psychometric properties.

Concepts: Version, Abbreviation


Systematic reviews offer the most reliable and valid support for health policy decision-making, patient information, and guideline development. However, they are labor intensive and frequently take longer than 1 year to complete. Consequently, they often do not meet the needs of those who need to make decisions quickly. Rapid reviews have therefore become a pragmatic alternative to systematic reviews. They are knowledge syntheses that abbreviate certain methodological aspects of systematic reviews to produce information more quickly. Methodological shortcuts often take place in literature identification. A potential drawback is less reliable results. To date, the impact of abbreviated searches on estimates of treatment effects and subsequent conclusions has not been analyzed systematically across multiple bodies of evidence. We aim to answer the research question: Do bodies of evidence that are based on abbreviated literature searches lead to different conclusions about benefits and harms of interventions compared with bodies of evidence that are based on comprehensive, systematic literature searches?

Concepts: Medicine, Decision making, Epistemology, Systematic review, Validity, Need, Labor, Abbreviation


The original version of this article [1], published on 5 April 2016, contains a mistake. In the ‘Role of pH stabilisation’ section, “intracellular pH” has been incorrectly abbreviated as “pHe”. The correct abbreviation is “pHi”. The affected sentence with the correct abbreviation is given below.

Concepts: Cancer, Enzyme, Anatomical pathology, Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Abbreviation, 2016


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established diagnostic imaging tool for investigating pediatric disease. MRI allows assessment of structure, function, and morphology in cardiovascular imaging, as well as tissue characterization in body imaging, without the use of ionizing radiation. For MRI in children, sedation and general anesthesia (GA) are often utilized to suppress patient motion, which can otherwise compromise image quality and diagnostic efficacy. However, evidence is emerging that use of sedation and GA in children might have long-term neurocognitive side effects, in addition to the short-term procedure-related risks. These concerns make risk-benefit assessment of sedation and GA more challenging. Therefore, reducing or eliminating the need for sedation and GA is an important goal of imaging innovation and research in pediatric MRI. In this review, the authors focus on technical and clinical approaches to reducing and eliminating the use of sedation in the pediatric population based on image acquisition acceleration and imaging protocols abbreviation. This paper covers important physiological and technical considerations for pediatric body MR imaging and discusses MRI techniques that offer the potential of recovering diagnostic-quality images from accelerated scans. In this review, the authors also introduce the concept of reporting elements for important indications for pediatric body MRI and use this as a basis for abbreviating the MR protocols. By employing appropriate accelerated and abbreviated approaches based on an understanding of the imaging needs and reporting elements for a given clinical indication, it is possible to reduce sedation and GA for pediatric chest, cardiovascular and abdominal MRI.

Concepts: X-ray, Medical imaging, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Anesthesia, Radiology, Ultrasound, Abbreviation


We would like to submit the following correction to our recently published paper [1] due to the error in illustration of the abbreviation eFORGE. The details are as follows:[…].

Concepts: Following, Writing, Abbreviation


Acronyms and abbreviations are frequently used in otorhinolaryngology and other medical specialties. CO2 laser-assisted transoral surgery of the pharynx, the larynx and the upper airway is a family of commonly performed surgical procedures termed transoral laser microsurgery (TLM). The abbreviation TLM can be confusing because of alternative modes of delivery. Classification and definition of the different types of procedures, performed transorally or transnasally, are proposed by the Working Committee for Nomenclature of the European Laryngological Society, emphasizing the type of laser used and the way this laser is transmitted. What is usually called TLM, would more clearly be defined as CO2 laser transoral microsurgery or CO2 TOLMS or CO2 laser transoral surgery only (with a handpiece) would be defined as CO2 TOLS. KTP transnasal flexible laser surgery would be KTP TNFLS. Transoral use of the flexible CO2 wave-guide with a handpiece would be a CO2 TOFLS. One can argue that these clarifications are not necessary and that the abbreviation TLM for transoral laser microsurgery is more than sufficient. But this is not the case. Laser surgery, office-based laser surgery and microsurgery are frequently and erroneously interchanged for one another. These classifications allow for a clear understanding of what was performed and what the results meant.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Laser, Plastic surgery, Laser surgery, Acronym and initialism, Abbreviation, Abbreviations


The Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire Short Form (HIS-Q-SF) is a patient-reported outcome measurement designed to evaluate the symptoms of hypogonadism. The HIS-Q-SF is an abbreviated version including17 items from the original 28-item HIS-Q.

Concepts: Francis Galton, Acronym and initialism, Abbreviation


In answer to the call for improved accessibility of neuropsychological services to the international community, the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS; MS) was validated in multiple, non-English-speaking countries. It was created to monitor processing speed and learning in MS patients, including abbreviated versions of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, California Verbal Learning Test, 2nd Edition, and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test, Revised. The objective of the present study was to examine whether participant nationality impacts performance above and beyond common demographic correlates.

Concepts: Present, Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Multiple sclerosis, Cognitive science, Educational psychology, Cognitive neuroscience, Abbreviation


We examine the dimensionality of the 150-item visual functioning questionnaire for individuals with ultralow vision (ULV-VFQ) and develop representative abbreviated versions, facilitating clinical use, while retaining compatibility with a 17-item performance assessment.

Concepts: Evaluation methods, Psychometrics, Visual perception, Item response theory, Rasch model, Psychological testing, Abbreviation