SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: A picture is worth a thousand words

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The power of visual imagery is well known, enshrined in such familiar sayings as “seeing is believing” and “a picture is worth a thousand words.” Iconic photos stir our emotions and transform our perspectives about life and the world in which we live. On September 2, 2015, photographs of a young Syrian child, Aylan Kurdi, lying face-down on a Turkish beach, filled the front pages of newspapers worldwide. These images brought much-needed attention to the Syrian war that had resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths and created millions of refugees. Here we present behavioral data demonstrating that, in this case, an iconic photo of a single child had more impact than statistical reports of hundreds of thousands of deaths. People who had been unmoved by the relentlessly rising death toll in Syria suddenly appeared to care much more after having seen Aylan’s photograph; however, this newly created empathy waned rather quickly. We briefly examine the psychological processes underlying these findings, discuss some of their policy implications, and reflect on the lessons they provide about the challenges to effective intervention in the face of mass threats to human well-being.

Concepts: Psychology, Empathy, Emotion, Turkey, Photography, Photograph, Syria, A picture is worth a thousand words

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Radiology reports are the major, and often only, means of communication between radiologists and their referring clinicians. The purposes of this study are to identify referring physicians' preferences about radiology reports and to quantify their perceived value of multimedia reports (with embedded images) compared with narrative text reports.

Concepts: Medicine, X-ray, Medical imaging, Radiology, Anatomy, Photography, Semiotics, A picture is worth a thousand words

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If a single picture is worth a thousand words, then a video, by logical extension, would be priceless. This edition showcases peripheral nerve surgery in all its grandeur and preserves it for posterity. Classic and novel surgical techniques are shown related to tumor biopsy or resection; nerve decompression for entrapment; and nerve reconstruction with direct repair or nerve transfer. Akin to a nautical chart filled with detailed maps for sailors, this Neurosurgical Focus Video Atlas provides navigational tools for neurosurgeons. The shared underlying message is that a sound knowledge of anatomy can lead to innovation (i.e., creative approaches or solutions) and excellence (i.e., improved patient outcomes).

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Navigation, Neurosurgery, Logic, Peripheral nervous system, A picture is worth a thousand words

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An analysis of NHS data published in by Morris et al. in 2010 is widely used as evidence in support of liver metastasectomy for colorectal cancer and its wider application. Recent evidence concerning better overall survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer challenges the notional assumptions about what survival would be without metastasectomy. Earlier detection of metastases for local treatments has not resulted in a survival benefit.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Prostate cancer, Colorectal cancer, A picture is worth a thousand words

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The adequacy of an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is frequently assessed by the number of LNs pathologically identified. We hypothesized that intraoperative photographs facilitate objective measurement of the surgical quality of an ALND.

Concepts: Optics, Photography, Lymphadenectomy, Camera, Photograph, A picture is worth a thousand words, Camera obscura

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Maps are powerful tools for visualization of differences in health indicators by geographical region, but multi-country maps of HIV indicators do not exist, perhaps due to lack of consistent data across countries. Our objective was to create maps of four HIV indicators in North, Central, and South American countries.

Concepts: Earth, Geography, Map, North America, Americas, Human geography, Cartography, A picture is worth a thousand words

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Properties of the binding mechanism in associative recognition were studied by examining the influence of the pictorial superiority effect on the age-related associative deficit. The informative aspect of associative recognition is the recollection of the pairing. Previous findings indicate that recollection is susceptible to aging and that pictorial presentation can enhance recollection and facilitate associative recognition. Pictorial presentation was found to facilitate item recognition by both young and older adults, associative recognition by young adults, but not associative recognition by older adults. Our findings support the hypothesis that the binding mechanism in associative recognition is content independent. Theoretical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Photography, A picture is worth a thousand words

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To quantify the effects of varying clinical communication styles (verbal and pictorial) on the ability of orthopaedic trauma surgeons to understand an injury and formulate an initial management plan.

Concepts: Photography, A picture is worth a thousand words

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All of us have heard that a picture is worth a thousand words, yet the 25 pictures on each of the quilts in our office often evoke awed silence. I want to tell you the story of our quilts.

Concepts: Photography, A picture is worth a thousand words, Quilting

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Schizophrenia is characterized by neurostructural and neurofunctional aberrations that have now been demonstrated through neuroimaging research. The article reviews recent studies that have attempted to use neuroimaging to understand the relation between neurological abnormalities and aspects of the phenomenology of schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies show that neurostructural and neurofunctional abnormalities are present in people with schizophrenia and their close relatives and may represent putative endophenotypes. Neuroimaging phenotypes predict the emergence of psychosis in individuals classified as high-risk. Neuroimaging studies have linked structural and functional abnormalities to symptoms; and progressive structural changes to clinical course and functional outcome. Neuroimaging has successfully indexed the neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects of schizophrenia treatments. Pictures can inform about aspects of the phenomenology of schizophrenia including etiology, onset, symptoms, clinical course, and treatment effects but this assertion is tempered by the scientific and practical limitations of neuroimaging.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, Greek loanwords, Neurology, Schizophrenia, Psychosis, Psychiatry, A picture is worth a thousand words